We've almost reached the limits of physics
So you mean I can have a computer that is approaching the limits ofLandauer's principle. Where does one find these mythical machines as I would love one that has the computational power of my desktop yet runs for years off of a single AA battery.
If it bleeds it leads.
has been around for a long time.
One of the consequences of the second law of thermodynamics is that a certain amount of energy is necessary to represent information. To record a single bit by changing the state of a system requires an amount of energy no less than kT, where T is the absolute temperature of the system and k is the Boltzman constant. (Stick with me; the physics lesson is almost over.)
Given that k = 1.38×10^-16 erg/Kelvin, and that the ambient temperature of the universe is 3.2 Kelvin, an ideal computer running at 3.2K would consume 4.4×10^-16 ergs every time it set or cleared a bit. To run a computer any colder than the cosmic background radiation would require extra energy to run a heat pump.
Now, the annual energy output of our sun is about 1.21×10^41 ergs. This is enough to power about 2.7×10^56 single bit changes on our ideal computer; enough state changes to put a 187-bit counter through all its values. If we built a Dyson sphere around the sun and captured all its energy for 32 years, without any loss, we could power a computer to count up to 2^192. Of course, it wouldn't have the energy left over to perform any useful calculations with this counter.
But that's just one star, and a measly one at that. A typical supernova releases something like 10^51 ergs. (About a hundred times as much energy would be released in the form of neutrinos, but let them go for now.) If all of this energy could be channeled into a single orgy of computation, a 219-bit counter could be cycled through all of its states.
These numbers have nothing to do with the technology of the devices; they are the maximums that thermodynamics will allow. And they strongly imply that brute-force attacks against 256-bit keys will be infeasible until computers are built from something other than matter and occupy something other than space.
I want crypto that has a good chance of outlasting the heat death of the universe even with a quantum computer. For symmetric key crypto this means you would need somewhere around a 601 bit keyspace IIRC before you exceed the mass energy of the universe.
Giuliani was just converting all the servers to a five-year-old version of Joomla.
So a massive modernization then.
One man's "magic" is another man's engineering. "Supernatural" is a null word. -- Robert Heinlein