IMHO: A USB device that depends on its power source to limit its input current, and can be damaged by a host that is willing to deliver more current that it requested, is defective by design.
Current limiting is to protect the supplier of the current. Bad current negotiation can damage the power supply, so of course the power supply should limit the current. A bad power supply may break, though. I think the main problem is that USB-C can use a range of voltages and a 5 V device plugged into a 20 V power supply will blow up the device unless the 20 V supply is signaled to throttle back to 5 V.
But maybe I misunderstand. Unfortunately, the reporting about this topic (Leung's findings) is very fuzzy about what happens exactly. But I don't see any scenario where connecting a good quality 5V, 1A or 2A charger to any USB-C device can lead to damage.