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Comment Space-net - The Last Question (Score 2) 42

The Last Question by Isaac Asimov © 1956
From http://www.multivax.com/last_question.html

The last question was asked for the first time, half in jest, on May 21, 2061, at a time
when humanity first stepped into the light. The question came about as a result of a five
dollar bet over highballs, and it happened this way:
Alexander Adell and Bertram Lupov were two of the faithful attendants of Multivac. As
well as any human beings could, they knew what lay behind the cold, clicking, flashing
face -- miles and miles of face -- of that giant computer. They had at least a vague notion
of the general plan of relays and circuits that had long since grown past the point where
any single human could possibly have a firm grasp of the whole.
Multivac was self-adjusting and self-correcting. It had to be, for nothing human could
adjust and correct it quickly enough or even adequately enough -- so Adell and Lupov
attended the monstrous giant only lightly and superficially, yet as well as any men could.
They fed it data, adjusted questions to its needs and translated the answers that were
issued. Certainly they, and all others like them, were fully entitled to share In the glory
that was Multivac's.
For decades, Multivac had helped design the ships and plot the trajectories that enabled
man to reach the Moon, Mars, and Venus, but past that, Earth's poor resources could
not support the ships. Too much energy was needed for the long trips. Earth exploited its
coal and uranium with increasing efficiency, but there was only so much of both.
But slowly Multivac learned enough to answer deeper questions more fundamentally,
and on May 14, 2061, what had been theory, became fact.
The energy of the sun was stored, converted, and utilized directly on a planet-wide
scale. All Earth turned off its burning coal, its fissioning uranium, and flipped the switch
that connected all of it to a small station, one mile in diameter, circling the Earth at half
the distance of the Moon. All Earth ran by invisible beams of sunpower.
Seven days had not sufficed to dim the glory of it and Adell and Lupov finally managed
to escape from the public function, and to meet in quiet where no one would think of
looking for them, in the deserted underground chambers, where portions of the mighty
buried body of Multivac showed. Unattended, idling, sorting data with contented lazy
clickings, Multivac, too, had earned its vacation and the boys appreciated that. They had
no intention, originally, of disturbing it.
They had brought a bottle with them, and their only concern at the moment was to relax
in the company of each other and the bottle.
"It's amazing when you think of it," said Adell. His broad face had lines of weariness in it,
and he stirred his drink slowly with a glass rod, watching the cubes of ice slur clumsily
about. "All the energy we can possibly ever use for free. Enough energy, if we wanted to
draw on it, to melt all Earth into a big drop of impure liquid iron, and still never miss the
energy so used. All the energy we could ever use, forever and forever and forever."
Lupov cocked his head sideways. He had a trick of doing that when he wanted to be
contrary, and he wanted to be contrary now, partly because he had had to carry the ice
and glassware. "Not forever," he said.
"Oh, hell, just about forever. Till the sun runs down, Bert."
"That's not forever."
"All right, then. Billions and billions of years. Twenty billion, maybe. Are you satisfied?"
Lupov put his fingers through his thinning hair as though to reassure himself that some
was still left and sipped gently at his own drink. "Twenty billion years isn't forever."
"Will, it will last our time, won't it?"
"So would the coal and uranium." "All right, but now we can hook up each individual spaceship to the Solar Station, and it
can go to Pluto and back a million times without ever worrying about fuel. You can't do
THAT on coal and uranium. Ask Multivac, if you don't believe me."
"I don't have to ask Multivac. I know that."
"Then stop running down what Multivac's done for us," said Adell, blazing up. "It did all
"Who says it didn't? What I say is that a sun won't last forever. That's all I'm saying.
We're safe for twenty billion years, but then what?" Lupov pointed a slightly shaky finger
at the other. "And don't say we'll switch to another sun."
There was silence for a while. Adell put his glass to his lips only occasionally, and
Lupov's eyes slowly closed. They rested.
Then Lupov's eyes snapped open. "You're thinking we'll switch to another sun when
ours is done, aren't you?"
"I'm not thinking."
"Sure you are. You're weak on logic, that's the trouble with you. You're like the guy in the
story who was caught in a sudden shower and Who ran to a grove of trees and got
under one. He wasn't worried, you see, because he figured when one tree got wet
through, he would just get under another one."
"I get it," said Adell. "Don't shout. When the sun is done, the other stars will be gone,
"Darn right they will," muttered Lupov. "It all had a beginning in the original cosmic
explosion, whatever that was, and it'll all have an end when all the stars run down. Some
run down faster than others. Hell, the giants won't last a hundred million years. The sun
will last twenty billion years and maybe the dwarfs will last a hundred billion for all the
good they are. But just give us a trillion years and everything will be dark. Entropy has to
increase to maximum, that's all."
"I know all about entropy," said Adell, standing on his dignity.
"The hell you do."
"I know as much as you do."
"Then you know everything's got to run down someday."
"All right. Who says they won't?"
"You did, you poor sap. You said we had all the energy we needed, forever. You said
"It was Adell's turn to be contrary. "Maybe we can build things up again someday," he
"Why not? Someday."
"Ask Multivac."
"You ask Multivac. I dare you. Five dollars says it can't be done."
Adell was just drunk enough to try, just sober enough to be able to phrase the necessary
symbols and operations into a question which, in words, might have corresponded to
this: Will mankind one day without the net expenditure of energy be able to restore the
sun to its full youthfulness even after it had died of old age?
Or maybe it could be put more simply like this: How can the net amount of entropy of the
universe be massively decreased?
Multivac fell dead and silent. The slow flashing of lights ceased, the distant sounds of
clicking relays ended.
Then, just as the frightened technicians felt they could hold their breath no longer, there
was a sudden springing to life of the teletype attached to that portion of Multivac. Five
words were printed: INSUFFICIENT DATA FOR MEANINGFUL ANSWER. "No bet," whispered Lupov. They left hurriedly.
By next morning, the two, plagued with throbbing head and cottony mouth, had forgotten
about the incident.

Jerrodd, Jerrodine, and Jerrodette I and II watched the starry picture in the visiplate
change as the passage through hyperspace was completed in its non-time lapse. At
once, the even powdering of stars gave way to the predominance of a single bright
marble-disk, centered.
"That's X-23," said Jerrodd confidently. His thin hands clamped tightly behind his back
and the knuckles whitened.
The little Jerrodettes, both girls, had experienced the hyperspace passage for the first
time in their lives and were self-conscious over the momentary sensation of inside-
outness. They buried their giggles and chased one another wildly about their mother,
screaming, "We've reached X-23 -- we've reached X-23 -- we've ----"
"Quiet, children," said Jerrodine sharply. "Are you sure, Jerrodd?"
"What is there to be but sure?" asked Jerrodd, glancing up at the bulge of featureless
metal just under the ceiling. It ran the length of the room, disappearing through the wall
at either end. It was as long as the ship.
Jerrodd scarcely knew a thing about the thick rod of metal except that it was called a
Microvac, that one asked it questions if one wished; that if one did not it still had its task
of guiding the ship to a preordered destination; of feeding on energies from the various
Sub-galactic Power Stations; of computing the equations for the hyperspacial jumps.
Jerrodd and his family had only to wait and live in the comfortable residence quarters of
the ship.
Someone had once told Jerrodd that the "ac" at the end of "Microvac" stood for "analog
computer" in ancient English, but he was on the edge of forgetting even that.
Jerrodine's eyes were moist as she watched the visiplate. "I can't help it. I feel funny
about leaving Earth."
"Why for Pete's sake?" demanded Jerrodd. "We had nothing there. We'll have
everything on X-23. You won't be alone. You won't be a pioneer. There are over a million
people on the planet already. Good Lord, our great grandchildren will be looking for new
worlds because X-23 will be overcrowded."
Then, after a reflective pause, "I tell you, it's a lucky thing the computers worked out
interstellar travel the way the race is growing."
"I know, I know," said Jerrodine miserably.
Jerrodette I said promptly, "Our Microvac is the best Microvac in the world."
"I think so, too," said Jerrodd, tousling her hair.
It was a nice feeling to have a Microvac of your own and Jerrodd was glad he was part
of his generation and no other. In his father's youth, the only computers had been
tremendous machines taking up a hundred square miles of land. There was only one to
a planet. Planetary ACs they were called. They had been growing in size steadily for a
thousand years and then, all at once, came refinement. In place of transistors had come
molecular valves so that even the largest Planetary AC could be put into a space only
half the volume of a spaceship.
Jerrodd felt uplifted, as he always did when he thought that his own personal Microvac
was many times more complicated than the ancient and primitive Multivac that had first
tamed the Sun, and almost as complicated as Earth's Planetary AC (the largest) that had
first solved the problem of hyperspatial travel and had made trips to the stars possible.
"So many stars, so many planets," sighed Jerrodine, busy with her own thoughts. "I
suppose families will be going out to new planets forever, the way we are now." "Not forever," said Jerrodd, with a smile. "It will all stop someday, but not for billions of
years. Many billions. Even the stars run down, you know. Entropy must increase."
"What's entropy, daddy?" shrilled Jerrodette II.
"Entropy, little sweet, is just a word which means the amount of running-down of the
universe. Everything runs down, you know, like your little walkie-talkie robot,
"Can't you just put in a new power-unit, like with my robot?"
The stars are the power-units, dear. Once they're gone, there are no more power-units."
Jerrodette I at once set up a howl. "Don't let them, daddy. Don't let the stars run down."
"Now look what you've done, " whispered Jerrodine, exasperated.
"How was I to know it would frighten them?" Jerrodd whispered back.
"Ask the Microvac," wailed Jerrodette I. "Ask him how to turn the stars on again."
"Go ahead," said Jerrodine. "It will quiet them down." (Jerrodette II was beginning to cry,
Jarrodd shrugged. "Now, now, honeys. I'll ask Microvac. Don't worry, he'll tell us."
He asked the Microvac, adding quickly, "Print the answer."
Jerrodd cupped the strip of thin cellufilm and said cheerfully, "See now, the Microvac
says it will take care of everything when the time comes so don't worry."
Jerrodine said, "and now children, it's time for bed. We'll be in our new home soon."
Jerrodd read the words on the cellufilm again before destroying it: INSUFFICIENT DATA
He shrugged and looked at the visiplate. X-23 was just ahead.

VJ-23X of Lameth stared into the black depths of the three-dimensional, small-scale
map of the Galaxy and said, "Are we ridiculous, I wonder, in being so concerned about
the matter?"
MQ-17J of Nicron shook his head. "I think not. You know the Galaxy will be filled in five
years at the present rate of expansion."
Both seemed in their early twenties, both were tall and perfectly formed.
"Still," said VJ-23X, "I hesitate to submit a pessimistic report to the Galactic Council."
"I wouldn't consider any other kind of report. Stir them up a bit. We've got to stir them
VJ-23X sighed. "Space is infinite. A hundred billion Galaxies are there for the taking.
"A hundred billion is not infinite and it's getting less infinite all the time. Consider! Twenty
thousand years ago, mankind first solved the problem of utilizing stellar energy, and a
few centuries later, interstellar travel became possible. It took mankind a million years to
fill one small world and then only fifteen thousand years to fill the rest of the Galaxy. Now
the population doubles every ten years --"
VJ-23X interrupted. "We can thank immortality for that."
"Very well. Immortality exists and we have to take it into account. I admit it has its seamy
side, this immortality. The Galactic AC has solved many problems for us, but in solving
the problems of preventing old age and death, it has undone all its other solutions."
"Yet you wouldn't want to abandon life, I suppose."
"Not at all," snapped MQ-17J, softening it at once to, "Not yet. I'm by no means old
enough. How old are you?"
"Two hundred twenty-three. And you?"
"I'm still under two hundred. --But to get back to my point. Population doubles every ten
years. Once this Galaxy is filled, we'll have another filled in ten years. Another ten years
and we'll have filled two more. Another decade, four more. In a hundred years, we'll have filled a thousand Galaxies. In a thousand years, a million Galaxies. In ten thousand
years, the entire known Universe. Then what?"
VJ-23X said, "As a side issue, there's a problem of transportation. I wonder how many
sunpower units it will take to move Galaxies of individuals from one Galaxy to the next."
"A very good point. Already, mankind consumes two sunpower units per year."
"Most of it's wasted. After all, our own Galaxy alone pours out a thousand sunpower
units a year and we only use two of those."
"Granted, but even with a hundred per cent efficiency, we can only stave off the end. Our
energy requirements are going up in geometric progression even faster than our
population. We'll run out of energy even sooner than we run out of Galaxies. A good
point. A very good point."
"We'll just have to build new stars out of interstellar gas."
"Or out of dissipated heat?" asked MQ-17J, sarcastically.
"There may be some way to reverse entropy. We ought to ask the Galactic AC."
VJ-23X was not really serious, but MQ-17J pulled out his AC-contact from his pocket
and placed it on the table before him.
"I've half a mind to," he said. "It's something the human race will have to face someday."
He stared somberly at his small AC-contact. It was only two inches cubed and nothing in
itself, but it was connected through hyperspace with the great Galactic AC that served all
mankind. Hyperspace considered, it was an integral part of the Galactic AC.
MQ-17J paused to wonder if someday in his immortal life he would get to see the
Galactic AC. It was on a little world of its own, a spider webbing of force-beams holding
the matter within which surges of sub-mesons took the place of the old clumsy molecular
valves. Yet despite it's sub-etheric workings, the Galactic AC was known to be a full
thousand feet across.
MQ-17J asked suddenly of his AC-contact, "Can entropy ever be reversed?"
VJ-23X looked startled and said at once, "Oh, say, I didn't really mean to have you ask
"Why not?"
"We both know entropy can't be reversed. You can't turn smoke and ash back into a
"Do you have trees on your world?" asked MQ-17J.
The sound of the Galactic AC startled them into silence. Its voice came thin and beautiful
out of the small AC-contact on the desk. It said: THERE IS INSUFFICIENT DATA FOR
VJ-23X said, "See!"
The two men thereupon returned to the question of the report they were to make to the
Galactic Council.

Zee Prime's mind spanned the new Galaxy with a faint interest in the countless twists of
stars that powdered it. He had never seen this one before. Would he ever see them all?
So many of them, each with its load of humanity - but a load that was almost a dead
weight. More and more, the real essence of men was to be found out here, in space.
Minds, not bodies! The immortal bodies remained back on the planets, in suspension
over the eons. Sometimes they roused for material activity but that was growing rarer.
Few new individuals were coming into existence to join the incredibly mighty throng, but
what matter? There was little room in the Universe for new individuals.
Zee Prime was roused out of his reverie upon coming across the wispy tendrils of
another mind.
"I am Zee Prime," said Zee Prime. "And you?"
"I am Dee Sub Wun. Your Galaxy?" "We call it only the Galaxy. And you?"
"We call ours the same. All men call their Galaxy their Galaxy and nothing more. Why
"True. Since all Galaxies are the same."
"Not all Galaxies. On one particular Galaxy the race of man must have originated. That
makes it different."
Zee Prime said, "On which one?"
"I cannot say. The Universal AC would know."
"Shall we ask him? I am suddenly curious."
Zee Prime's perceptions broadened until the Galaxies themselves shrunk and became a
new, more diffuse powdering on a much larger background. So many hundreds of
billions of them, all with their immortal beings, all carrying their load of intelligences with
minds that drifted freely through space. And yet one of them was unique among them all
in being the originals Galaxy. One of them had, in its vague and distant past, a period
when it was the only Galaxy populated by man.
Zee Prime was consumed with curiosity to see this Galaxy and called, out: "Universal
AC! On which Galaxy did mankind originate?"
The Universal AC heard, for on every world and throughout space, it had its receptors
ready, and each receptor lead through hyperspace to some unknown point where the
Universal AC kept itself aloof.
Zee Prime knew of only one man whose thoughts had penetrated within sensing
distance of Universal AC, and he reported only a shining globe, two feet across, difficult
to see.
"But how can that be all of Universal AC?" Zee Prime had asked.
"Most of it, " had been the answer, "is in hyperspace. In what form it is there I cannot
Nor could anyone, for the day had long since passed, Zee Prime knew, when any man
had any part of the making of a universal AC. Each Universal AC designed and
constructed its successor. Each, during its existence of a million years or more
accumulated the necessary data to build a better and more intricate, more capable
successor in which its own store of data and individuality would be submerged.
The Universal AC interrupted Zee Prime's wandering thoughts, not with words, but with
guidance. Zee Prime's mentality was guided into the dim sea of Galaxies and one in
particular enlarged into stars.
A thought came, infinitely distant, but infinitely clear. "THIS IS THE ORIGINAL GALAXY
But it was the same after all, the same as any other, and Zee Prime stifled his
Dee Sub Wun, whose mind had accompanied the other, said suddenly, "And Is one of
these stars the original star of Man?"
"Did the men upon it die?" asked Zee Prime, startled and without thinking.
"Yes, of course," said Zee Prime, but a sense of loss overwhelmed him even so. His
mind released its hold on the original Galaxy of Man, let it spring back and lose itself
among the blurred pin points. He never wanted to see it again.
Dee Sub Wun said, "What is wrong?"
"The stars are dying. The original star is dead."
"They must all die. Why not?" "But when all energy is gone, our bodies will finally die, and you and I with them."
"It will take billions of years."
"I do not wish it to happen even after billions of years. Universal AC! How may stars be
kept from dying?"
Dee sub Wun said in amusement, "You're asking how entropy might be reversed in
Zee Prime's thoughts fled back to his own Galaxy. He gave no further thought to Dee
Sub Wun, whose body might be waiting on a galaxy a trillion light-years away, or on the
star next to Zee Prime's own. It didn't matter.
Unhappily, Zee Prime began collecting interstellar hydrogen out of which to build a small
star of his own. If the stars must someday die, at least some could yet be built.

Man considered with himself, for in a way, Man, mentally, was one. He consisted of a
trillion, trillion, trillion ageless bodies, each in its place, each resting quiet and
incorruptible, each cared for by perfect automatons, equally incorruptible, while the
minds of all the bodies freely melted one into the other, indistinguishable.
Man said, "The Universe is dying."
Man looked about at the dimming Galaxies. The giant stars, spendthrifts, were gone long
ago, back in the dimmest of the dim far past. Almost all stars were white dwarfs, fading
to the end.
New stars had been built of the dust between the stars, some by natural processes,
some by Man himself, and those were going, too. White dwarfs might yet be crashed
together and of the mighty forces so released, new stars built, but only one star for every
thousand white dwarfs destroyed, and those would come to an end, too.
Man said, "Carefully husbanded, as directed by the Cosmic AC, the energy that is even
yet left in all the Universe will last for billions of years."
"But even so," said Man, "eventually it will all come to an end. However it may be
husbanded, however stretched out, the energy once expended is gone and cannot be
restored. Entropy must increase to the maximum."
Man said, "Can entropy not be reversed? Let us ask the Cosmic AC."
The Cosmic AC surrounded them but not in space. Not a fragment of it was in space. It
was in hyperspace and made of something that was neither matter nor energy. The
question of its size and Nature no longer had meaning to any terms that Man could
"Cosmic AC," said Man, "How may entropy be reversed?"
Man said, "Collect additional data."
"Will there come a time," said Man, "when data will be sufficient or is the problem
insoluble in all conceivable circumstances?"
Man said, "When will you have enough data to answer the question?"
"Will you keep working on it?" asked Man.
The Cosmic AC said, "I WILL." Man said, "We shall wait."

"The stars and Galaxies died and snuffed out, and space grew black after ten trillion
years of running down.
One by one Man fused with AC, each physical body losing its mental identity in a
manner that was somehow not a loss but a gain.
Man's last mind paused before fusion, looking over a space that included nothing but the
dregs of one last dark star and nothing besides but incredibly thin matter, agitated
randomly by the tag ends of heat wearing out, asymptotically, to the absolute zero.
Man said, "AC, is this the end? Can this chaos not be reversed into the Universe once
more? Can that not be done?"
Man's last mind fused and only AC existed -- and that in hyperspace.

Matter and energy had ended and with it, space and time. Even AC existed only for the
sake of the one last question that it had never answered from the time a half-drunken
computer ten trillion years before had asked the question of a computer that was to AC
far less than was a man to Man.
All other questions had been answered, and until this last question was answered also,
AC might not release his consciousness.
All collected data had come to a final end. Nothing was left to be collected.
But all collected data had yet to be completely correlated and put together in all possible
A timeless interval was spent in doing that.
And it came to pass that AC learned how to reverse the direction of entropy.
But there was now no man to whom AC might give the answer of the last question. No
matter. The answer -- by demonstration -- would take care of that, too.
For another timeless interval, AC thought how best to do this. Carefully, AC organized
the program.
The consciousness of AC encompassed all of what had once been a Universe and
brooded over what was now Chaos. Step by step, it must be done.
And there was light----

Comment Top posting POS, good riddance (Score 0) 213

I've used Windows from 3.1 to Win7 and almost all versions in between, in all the time I've never used Messenger.
But I've read my share of messages posted with messenger and it's top posting backasswards behavior.

Used IE to download Netscape, but Netscape couldn't keep up with the newsgroups so gave Forte Agent .98
a try and been using it since, stopping at 1.93.

Comment Computer Sound system both share the same plan (Score 1) 242

I mark both ends with Brady wire markers, these come with the job when you do wiring.

I also map it out, Each wire/cable with it's number at each end and keep the paper handy
so if I'm really lost I can go back to it. (sound system)

Wind up the surplus wire and wire tie it, each bundle (7.1 sound system) a different length
so you don't have a ball of bundles.

Wire ties loosely around objects so you can use it as a wire run, that can support weight.

If wires are going to run across the floor (sound system) I use a cord concealer and protector
just like these http://www.cableorganizer.com/neoprene-cord-cover/

If you do use the clear mat that lets you move your chair around on, get the dull nubs on the bottom
not sharp ones as they will sever wires in a cables you've run under it.

All this with concealment in mind (keep it pretty), every cord goes down a hole behind my monitor then comes up
a few feet away from two different holes. The wire markers are below the hole for this end so I just pull on the cable
and the marker that moves is the one I'm after. Of course any setup would depend upon your environment.

Comment Re:I flunked out of electoral college (Score 1) 881

I can say 100% would still vote as myself and the person I told both voted :} (See other reply to same post)

There's more than just the president to vote for. This year we (Washington State) vote for
legalization of marijuana, It has a very good chance of passing.

I haven't read the full initiative, but told it's written to take on Federal regulations. Gonna fight
the cocaine snorting*, marijuana smoking* Obama on this one.

* according to the tabloids

I was living in Alaska when marijuana was legalized there, always hoped my generation
would keep at it as we had promised.

Comment Re:I flunked out of electoral college (Score 1) 881

Now does anyone have data on whether the forecasting of a win discourages the supporters or opponents of the projected winner from actually voting?

I live in Washington State (USA) about 7:30 pm (polls closed at 8:00 pm)
driving to vote the radio's telling me Carter was in tears at his loss, and that Regan had won.

The line to the vote was fairly long and I also wondered how people
would of turn around and leave if I told them what I knew.

I only told one person (had tell someone) it was the legalities of
that polling place I didn't wish to test.

Comment Re:back to the future (Score 1) 179

Not my first thought, Nikola Tesla did come up with it, yet the article makes no such claim:

"Wireless charging has been a much sought-after technical solution for everything from cell phones to electric cars,"

Yet you don't need to charge the damn things just have a transmitter to power them; and
what blocked Nikola Tesla from successfully showing it was possible.

Money never interested Tesla, only cared for what it took to build his "stuff". Tesla's
plan was free power for everybody at any place in the world. Not a good thing in
a commercial world :}.

So it would be congratulations "University of British Columbia" for yet again showing the genius of Nikola Tesla.

-A thought, J.P. Morgan had the patent on this, wonder if it's still in effect.

Comment Re:Motorola Xoom (Score 1) 230

What? I don't know why you wouldn't just say "tablet" though, when people ask.

Cause the next question is normally "what kind". At that point I'll use the Amazon Kindle to explain
it more in depth to those who really want to know or show an interest in it.

Motorola Xoom's wow factor is while talking to someone about it you ask "what's 32 divided by 4",
and a female voice comes back "32 divided by 4 is 8" - every single person has said "oh, you have Siri".

Comment Motorola Xoom (Score 1) 230

I haven't seen one mention of it in this discussion.

It's Google's answer to the ipad, Kindle, and others. There are even sites
dedicated to them http://www.xoomforums.com/forum/ yet not one
mention of one. Me thinks the market is saturated in many tablet related areas

The Xoom being better (as I see it) than the Chromebook but at twice the price (retail).
I do like the fact the Chromebook will play just about any media (it claims all).

(Wikipedia hasn't been updated)

Yes, I have a Motorola Xoom, I tell folks it's an ipad as it stops the questioning looks.
Keyboard? I have a BlueTooth keyboard from some second hand store, by themselves take
up very little space.

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