The problem we have is that we are too caught up in being right that we can't have an honest discussion about fairness to find common ground.
Of course government and society are going to be hopelessly inefficient at achieving big things if we can't even agree on what the goals are. Even those who aren't corrupt, egotistical, or stupid are doomed to fail when everyone's measuring success against different criteria.
"it is our duty as humans to make it as fair as we can"
1) We can't even agree on what's fair, and can't have an honest discussion about it. We have trouble dealing with the fact that there are consequences of bad decisions or bad behavior. Warm and fuzzy isn't scalable, but politics today is about emotions and fear.
2) It's our duty as humans? Seriously, what crack have you been smoking? What duty do we have because we're humans? Are we INHERENTLY responsible for something more than a chimpanzee or a maggot? Why? Because the FSM said so?
Lastly, things that "taxation is addressing"? Taxation addresses a need to acquire revenue. What's done with the money that's collected may or may not be something that has to be addressed. The Constitution lays out the duties of the federal government and says what it can and can't do. If you want the rules changed, there's a mechanism. It's fully my right and responsibility to bitch about where the government exceeds its authority, and the most direct impact that I can address -- "standing" so to speak -- is where something's taken from me to give to someone else by someone who's not technically authorized to do so.
I understand that I'm being a purist, and I'm willing to make concessions for "the greater good", but there's no reason my contribution should go to provide something for people who have no responsibility to contribute as well.
If you want fairness, then you have to have consequences for failure.