OK, educate me: what is the difference between "fundamentalist" and "protestant." I was under the impression that protestants were "protesting" the changes that the Catholic Church had made, and were therefore returning to the "fundamentals" of Christianity or something wacky like that.
This being one of the reasons why protestants refuse to accept evolution: the Catholic Church does accept it. AFAIK, only protestants refuse to accept evolution as truth.
Ok, we're veering a bit off topic here, but I'll try and clarify this quickly.
There's 2 main branches of Christianity (and a few other small ones) Orthodox and Catholic. From the Catholic branch, the Protestants broke off for a variety of reasons. If you boil it all down, it's basically that Protestants wanted to focus the religion more on the Bible than the collection of Catholic Dogma. (Anglicans are in-between, being part Protestant part Catholic)
Within Protestantism there are many different branches, all with slightly different interpretations of the bible and different meanings of it. They also have very different liberal/conservative viewpoints buried inside those interpretations.
"Fundamentalism" was a movement within Protestant religions started in the early 20th Century, mainly among Presbyterians and Baptists. It was started in response to perceived threats to Christianity and advocated a strict adherence to the "Five Fundamentals". They are:
1) The Bible is directly created with the aid of the Holy Spirit and is without error and free of contradiction.
2) Mary was a virgin when she gave birth to Jesus.
3) Jesus's death was for atonement of our sins.
4) The Resurrection
5) Jesus's miracles were a historical reality.
However, many (most?) protestants don't believe in these, especially number 1.