An anonymous reader writes: The Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is an ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute) standard for 2G pan European digital cellular with international roaming. The main purpose of the group was to develop a 2G standard to resolve the roaming problem in the six existing different 1G analog systems in Europe. In 1986, the task force was formed, and in 1987 a memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed. In 1989, ETSI included GSM in its domain. In 1991, the specification of the standard was completed, and in 1992, the first deployment started. By the year 1993, thirty two operators in 22 countries adopted the GSM standard, and by 2001, close to 150 countries had adopted Global System GSM for cellular adaptation.