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In general Americans have problems with moderation. If you say you went out to drink, then you will drink until you're drunk. While in many other countries a drink is just a drink, not even enough to get legally buzzed. If the person smoke then they smoke at least a pack a day. While in other countries it may be 1 or 2 cigarette a day.
Anecdotes are anecdotes, but as an American with a bit a world travel under my belt, this contrasts with my observations. Europeans tend to be better at the "just one drink" (and when they do over-do it, there is much better public transit, or their homes are nearby). East Asians seem to enjoy having a few drinks at a time, and Mexicans as well. There was no legal alcohol in Kuwait, and my visit to Afghanistan was before the wine "industry" started up again (so no observations there). However, the pub culture and local breweries have been taking off here in the western U.S., and we frequently go and have just one beer around here.
As to smokers: in every other country I visit, the local nationals are always surprised at how few Americans smoke. In many states in the U.S., public indoors smoking is illegal, which really cuts down on the number of chain smokers, and forces them to limit their smoking to about one cigarette per hour. I'm always surprised when I go elsewhere, as to how many people will finish a cigarette, then immediately light up another.
Beat cops work great in high density areas, it's expensive though and the high density areas are usually poor which means those programs usually get canceled despite their effectiveness.
Unfortunately, Los Angeles is effectively one giant suburban sprawl, so there aren't really many locations that are high density. Most of the "ghettos" and "barrios" of L.A. where once reasonable working- and middle-class neighborhoods in the 1950s and '60s.
If you take a bit of well-constructed procedural/structural code, then convert it to OOP, you'll find you tend to wind up with a few extra memory loads and jump/branch instructions. You also tend to spend a bit more runtime doing data initialization with classes rather than structs.
Most of the time, these changes insignificant, but if you're doing something intensely iterative it can add up.
That you have a right to a "Jury of your peers" is a misunderstanding; it is nowhere in the U.S. Constitution. That concept was a British common law one, established by the Magna Carta, wherein nobles would be tried with a jury composed of nobles, and commoners with a jury of commoners. Since titles of nobility, etc. are blocked by U.S. Constitution, that means everyone is a "commoner", so everyone is your peer.
However, if I ever found myself being prosecuted, I would certainly much rather the jurors be composed largely of engineers and similar professions, but those tend to get booted during jury selection (lawyers don't like people who can see through their bullshit).
The deep ocean, where the clathrates are (because methane requires high pressure to hydrate in the midst of liquid water) really doesn't have much variation in temperature. Water, salt water included, is at it's densest at just a few degrees above it's freezing point, so you get an approximately constant temperature at the bottom (neglecting thermal vents and thin areas of crust, and the like). Tectonic/volcanic events are much more likely to release the stuff, and we don't have much control over that (okay, there is some debate about oil fracking, but that is land-based).
With respect to the "exponential system", the old "hockey stick" graph has been repeatedly shown to be false. Not to say there is no warming going on, but whether it's linear, exponential, or cyclic has yet to be proven. I'm more inclined to lean "cyclic" as there have been multiple ice ages and warming periods. Anyone know of any studies that have run Fourier Analysis/FFTs on climate data?
Spraying sulphur in the atmosphere in a warmed up Earth? Are they trying to recreate Hell?
"They" aren't, but the summary writer sure is.