It depends how the US saw its needs been met for a massive in flow of university skill sets over decades.
Every applicant would face same database search- state and federal, a interview with family, friends depending on the position, contractor, gov, mil.
Historically that could be done as part of the draft or national service 'testing' for math, languages in some countries.
Other nations just had vast university networks to feed in their maths, science, anthropology, language, computer science, psychology skill sets as needed.
Nations my opt to use front companies or cut outs of keep skill sets in a business, faith, academic or telco setting.
The other option is just to have national advertising that shows the clandestine services are looking for staff, have a go with your life story and you might make the interview stage. Top public service wages and condition mentioned, broad areas of interest to the gov (languages, math) but few other details.
The good news about that massive approach is it keeps everybody guessing as to the final intake needs for that year or decade.
The US seems to have two huge issues. Attracting the very top university students and keeping them over decades.
Wages and good conditions where something the US could always offer and the UK had to learn to offer beyond the 1970's.
The other issue is ensuring enough publicity as students exit an academic setting and enter the wider US work force. The US crypto and other US mil/gov related clandestine services have to position themselves as been a well paying, long term alternative to anything in the public or private sector and ensure a lot of students saw that message every year..
The massive needs for the US gov and mil to draw new people in with needed skills, other nations ideas about using hidden methods to suggest options in the gov/mil as part of an academic setting.
Part of that would be a new social media and contractor based employment network to show how fun and easy changing jobs, contractors could be. Word would spread that getting a clearance was not very hard, that listing work done was allowed and opened up a lot of new opportunities.
The US had a different way of creating interest in and keeping a flow of expert staff for its clandestine services.