C:\>apt-get install visual-studio
"apt-get" is not an operable program [yadda yadda]
C:\>yum install visual-studio
"yum" is not an operable program [yadda yadda]
What's the command to download and install a desktop application package (in this case Visual Studio Express) from Microsoft's repository?
No, because renaming it has the same effects on existing systems. The installed package "ownCloud" is no longer there (by that name) so future usage of apt-get can still break.
Of course it can. The repository maintainer can introduce a new package pwnCloud and turn ownCloud into a metapackage that requires pwnCloud. This "transitional package" pattern happens often in Ubuntu updates.
Still, there is an option to sign up for just the phone plans without wireless data
Are you sure Verizon will even activate voice-only service on a smartphone? AT&T sure won't.
and use wired or satellite ISPs for internet access.
And if the DSL ILEC for your area is also Verizon, too bad.
Just install HTTPS Everywhere [...] all good sites work.
You appear to call Slashdot not a good site. It redirects all HTTPS hits from non-subscribers to HTTP.
a CPU that can manage a trillion hashes per second (easy)
A trillion (10^12) hashes per second can still check only 100 million (10^8) passwords per second if checking each requires 5000 rounds of PBKDF2. In the common PBKDF2 built on HMAC, each round is two hashes, making a 5000-round PBKDF2 take 10,000 (10^4) hashes.
There are infinite varieties of ways to inject a delay between login attempts, or lock out the console/IP entirely, after N failed attempts. N should be on the order of 10
At which point you may be on the wrong side of the tradeoff between security and convenience. If you have 100 subscribers behind a proxy with a single public IPv4 address, and ten of them forget one password, good luck fielding customer support calls for all of them.