Thanks. (The media had me thinking they'd specifically banned incandescents and I hadn't read the actual law.)
The light temperature is off for the wood interior. We had it the way we want it and intend to keep it that way.
The TEMPERATURE is too high, too. (Halogens last long because the gas reacts with the evaporated tungsten that's landed on the inside of the capsule - picking it up as a tungsten halide, then depositing it as tungsten metal again at the hottest - i.e. thinnest - part of the filament.)
Take away the crimes of two inner city subcultures from the statistics and then the murder and violent crime rates are the same as Europe.
Actually we're lower even without that. It turns out there's a BIG difference in how crimes are reported - especially vs. Great Britain. For instance:
In the US we count a murder when there's a body and suspicious circumstances. In Great Britain they count a murder when they have a CONVICTION.
In the US, if a gang robs an apartment house it's one robbery per unit. In GB it's one robbery.
In the US if daddy comes home and shoots his wife, three kids, and himself, it's four murders and one suicide. In Japan it's five suicides.
This kind of stuff goes on and on...
One thing that's not in question:
- People of European ancestry have a lower vicitmization rate in the US than in Europe.
- People of African ancestry have a lower victimization rate in the US than in Africa.
- People of Asian ancestry have a lower victimization rate in the US than in Asia.
And so on.
Did a little checking. It's Xenon that they were playing with back then. Xenon is reasonably easy to convince to make covalent bonds, and some of its compounds are used industrially and available in commercial quantities.
Argon is less reactive, and they didn't get it to form compounds until 2000, with some encouragement from an ultraviolet light source to kick an electron up to another level.
Argon forms compounds without too much coercion. Back in the mid '60s chemists were playing with them regularly. As I understand it (I'm NOT a chemist and haven't done this myself):
Just mix argon and fuourine in a pressure vessel and heat it up. (VERY CAREFULLY! Fluorine gas is deadly!) You'll quickly get copious amounts of argon difluoride, tetrafluoride, and even some hexafluoride. These are stable enough to stick around once you bring things down to room temperatures.
Once you've got them, there are techniques for substituting other stuff for one or more of the fluorines.
But you DO have to be careful, even after the fluorine is out of the picture. I hear these compounds tend to be explosive, due to argon's propensity for dumping the riders and flying away alone.
IMHO the regulations (if the government felt it NECESSARY to regulate) should have been written in terms of minimal efficiency, not banning certain types of light source.
There are two technologies I'm aware of that produce an incandescent that's about as efficient as a CFL. They're pricier than the highly competitive commodity bulb. But with an efficiency floor taking those out of the running, these might have become competitive.
The first is quite a few decades old: You make a substantially spherical bulb and put the filiment at the center. Then you coat the bulb with an interference coating that reflects most of the infrared but passes most of the visible light. The small percentage of energy that forms visible photons escapes, while the bulk that forms infrared photons are returned to the filament, reheating it and having another chance to be re-radiated in the visible.
The second is recent: A nanotextured surface for the filament. It radiates almost entirely in the visible wavelengths (much like an antenna tuned to a band of frequencies, which it launches well while bouncing other bands back toward the transmitter).
My wife has meniere's disease, which results in debilitating vertigo attacks. At this point the balance sensors in one of her ears are essentially totally destroyed, and those in the other are slowly degrading.
One of the results is that her vision is now a much bigger part of here balance system. Anything that disrupts it can trigger vertigo attacks.
The flickering of arc lamps and many fluorescent lights causes these attacks. (For instance, she can't spend more than about 20 minutes total in a "warehouse store" such as Costco, Lowe's, Home Depot, etc. because of their use of arc lights (with substantial regions of the store on a single phase). We have to turn off the tube-style kitchen lights
120 Hz flicker is well above the "flicker fusion rate", so you can't perceive it. We believe the attacks occur because the strobing causes slight delays and errors in the apparent position of objects when they are, or she is, moving.
Some compact fluorescents trigger attacks, some do not. (We believe this to be because, on those that don't phosphor persistence or adequate filter capacitors after the rectifiers "fill in" the "valleys" of the post-rectifier waveform, reducing flicker until it's not a problem, while cheaper lights skimp on capacitors, allowing the light to strobe.)
LEDs are good for flicker rates into the GHz. Some of those we have examined flicker quite dramatically. So we will be very cagey about switching to them, until they're both efficient AND the manufacturers have begun making a practice of supplying enough capacitor filtering to avoid significant flicker.
Incandescents, of course, don't have the issue. They heat up and cool down very slowly "filling in the valleys" just fine.
When this regulation came along, though, we were concerned that we would soon be unable to purchase replacements for burned out incandescents in our Nevada home, which would have been a serious health problem if non-flickering replacements were not available.
So we purchased enough current production bulbs for each of the fixtures to last for the remainder of our expected lifespans.
This cost about a thousand bucks, so far. (We still need to buy the replacements for the "can" fixtures over one of the minor countertops, and some more "daylight" ceiling fan bulbs. Probably another $400 by the time we're done.)
We really didn't want to do this, preferring to buy replacements as needed and switching to LEDs in about another three years IF flicker-free devices become available. But the new regulation created enough of a risk to force us into it.
Now that we've bought them, we'll probably continue to use them long after we'd have switched to LEDs.
So in our case the unintended consequences were quite the opposite of what was intended.
A pair of light frequencies (one outgoing, one incoming)
I don't believe! It will mean that either there are 250 lasers of different color and [lots more junk].
You're thinking of a different scheme: Wavelength division multiplexing. That would be about as expensive as separate fibers to each house with individual transcievers. (Moreso, since the many different-colored laser transcievers are pricey.) Wavelength division multiplexing is about getting more bandwidth or channels out of fibers, in long-haul or around large datacenters.
There aren't 250 frequencies in PON. There are only two. One for signals from the curbside box to ALL 250 houses, one for ALL the houses toward the curbside box. (The system I'm familiar with used the two common infrared laser diode frequences, which are far apart to easily filter.) They only use two colors so they don't have to worry about reflections from imperfect fiber joints and the like, and so the subscriber boxes don't have to sort out each others "talking", too.
Single transceiver in the curbside box for ALL the 250 subscriber sites. That's where the big savings from PON comes from. (There's a bit more by using one fiber for all and splitters, rather than separate fibers for each.)
The houses are sorted out by time division multiplexing, not separate color lasers.
Or to put it another way how little energy most things need. You don't need tons of power unless you're trying to heat somewhere or move heavy things.
There's a hysterical amount of power in mechanical motion. One horsepower is almost exactly 3/4 of a kilowatt.
Cruising a mid-size car at highway speed against air and rolling resistance takes about 18 HP (much more for accelerating or hill-climbing, of course), while a "typical home" load is about a kilowatt average, i.e. 1 1/3 HP.
Not to mention the well-known fact that batteries have a limited number of discharge/recharge cycles
That depends on the battery chemistry.
As I understand it, modern Lithium Ion chemistries are mainly affected by time since manufacture / first charge (due to ongoing electrode oxidation) and high temperatures, with extra cycling (if it doesn't result in overheating the battery) a minor issue.
(But I'm not expert on this so maybe somebody who is could comment?)
Crosstalk alone I would think would be an issue.
Yes, it is. The standard is largely about canceling crosstalk. (Look for "vectoring" in TFA.)
Without the standard's crosstalk cancellation feature, but with everything else according to the standard, the speed drops by a factor of five.
200Mbps over these short hauls is not to sneeze at. But it's not such a big deal, either.
Ya no... that's not how it works at all.
It's called a Fiber Mux: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplexing
That's how things like DSLAMs work: One (or more for redundancy) fat pipe for backhaul, a router or switch in the box at the curb, and individual links carrying only each customers' data to the DSL modem at each customers' site.
Passive Optical Networks work like cable internet (and vaugely like the original party-line coaxial Ethernet): A pair of light frequencies (one outgoing, one incoming) connect the box at the curb, through attenuator/splitters, to each of a handful of sites. (The one I saw had an 8-bit hardware address and handled 250 subscribers per fiber.)
- The outgoing signal contains the traffic for all up-to-250 subscribers on a given link and the subscriber box rejects traffic for all but its own destination(s).
- The incoming traffic takes turns on the other light frequency. (Timing information is on the outgoing link and they run a link-level protocol to assign slots as requested when the subscribers' boxes have traffic, rather than a collision/retry protocol.)
Advantage is you need about half as many optic transcievers to implement it, while optical splitter/combiners are really cheap.
So, yes, it would be trivial to build a box that could listen to the fiber and tap your neighbors' downbound traffic. (You MIGHT be able to tap the upbound traffic from SOME of your neighbors, too, with a sufficiently sensitive optic receiver and if the fiber joints and splitter/combiners have enough discontinuity to reflect enough of their inbound light.)
Burnouts may be showy. But you get better acceleration from a standing start if you DON'T break traction.
What I'd find more useful is a "button" for automatic maximum-traction acceleration (to a presetable speed or until you let off the gas). Think "anti-lock brakes" but in acceleration.
(Though what I'd find FAR more useful is integrating "tow-haul" mode with the speed control.)
In the context of WWII, the atomic bomb undoubtedly created a net savings of both allied and Japanese lives.
But you really don't want to debate this in a Sushi bar.
it wasn't just Germany developing atomic weapons, Japan was as well
Among their plans was one to dirty-bomb the US west coast, San Francisco in particular.
They also understood the potential for a fission bomb and were working on it. This is why they recognized the A-bomb right away.
That's also why it was important to bomb Nagasaki the week after Hiroshima. This discredited the generals' claim that making these things was hard and the US couldn't have very many of them. Dropping two in as many weeks raised the spectre of one a week forever.
And the generals were right. As I understand it, the US had one in the pipeline and enough material for one or two more. Then there'd have been a several month pause, followed by about one a month.
This dearth of material, combined with the fact that the first one dropped was an untested design so failure WAS an option, was why there wasn't a demo to try to convince the Japanese to knuckle under without an actual bombing. The less-than-a-handful were too precious to be spent on other than actual targets.