Wow, that's pretty devious/clever. The lights don't do anything except get you to look at the camera.
You are misunderstanding the author's point, which is (roughly): "If there were a rock out in space with the same albedo as Earth (with atmosphere), it would be colder than Earth." That is all they are saying.
You are correct in that if they were interested in the temperature of Earth without atmosphere, then the provided albedo would be wrong. However, that's not what they're interested in. They are only trying to show that a purely albedo/black-body model is insufficient.
GNAT Pro Ada is just a professionally supported version of the GCC Ada implementation:
(See the Versions section)