Sure you can. Aircraft autopilots have a fairly simple job that needs to be done superbly reliably. Most of the things you've listed are somewhat hard for a human because he has to remember to think about them, like balancing fuel. It's easy to program a computer to always make sure fuel is balanced. So easy, you don't actually need a computer for it. An aircraft autopilot doesn't "need to know physics." It needs to know that with the flaps at 15 degrees the minimum speed is X. Again, that's so simple that aircraft used to implement stall warnings with very simple electronics. Some may have even done it purely mechanically. For the hard part of piloting an aircraft, landing, the autopilot requires external help from instrument landing systems. The big challenge is making sure the human programmers don't screw up while writing the relatively simple code.
You can make a self driving car just as easily if you design the road to go with it. But if you want a self driving car that drives on regular roads you have to do computer vision, which is a lot harder.