Just a basic understanding of elementary physics.
It does sound as if you have a basic knowledge of elementary physics, i.e. High School physics. Take university level physics or some automotive engineering in a university and they will explain what you are missing. I'm not able to give you that level of education in these posts.
Long enough, and enough times.
That would be zero and zero wouldn't it?
I had my license for 4 years and did approximately 30 sanctioned races and about 100 non-sanctioned races. I was also the team trainer for 2 years. With two entries per race we took first and second place many times. I speak from real on the track experience.