Not quite. Gtk and Gnome appeared because Qt was originally proprietary. The reason why Gnome became "the default", though, was because enterprise distros like RedHat pushed for it - and that was because Gtk and Gnome were both LGPL, so closed-source software could link against them. This was not the case with Qt, which was open sourced for a long time, but was GPL rather than LGPL.
Their motto of "Developers, Developers, Developers" also disappeared with Ballmer's exit. Everything is now getting locked down to the max in their attempt to be like Apple.
If by this you mean the various limitations surrounding Windows Store (aka "Metro") apps, then those happened very much under Ballmer. Hell, the guy have only just recently left, so what exactly has disappeared since then?
At the same time, Satya was heading Cloud & Enterprise business before becoming CEO. And C&E, among other things, includes DevDiv - and Satya has a lot of supporters there. Furthermore, note the meteoric rise of Scott Guthrie, who was always one of the more passionate advocates of a solid and modern developer story for MS (in particular, embracing F/OSS).
Did you miss the entire recent
The solution in the short term is to use the best methods to obtain petroleum based products, fracking, to keep costs down so we have enough research money to throw into things like geothermal electricity, battery technology, and geo-engineering solutions to removing CO2 from the atmosphere.
So, basically, tax oil production - we could call that, say, "carbon credits" - and then invest those into R&D necessary for clean energy and geoengineering?
F# officially supports Mono.
Try writing a compiler in it, and you'll quickly see what it is good for.
The main thing of interest there is actually ADTs and pattern matching on them. For some tasks (often ones involving trees), this leads to very concise yet natural code.
Did you miss the major announcement about official partnership with Xamarin a month ago or so?
This can only work with precompilation if dynamic assembly loading is disabled (so that the complete set of instantiations is known in advance). This may be feasible for Store apps, but many desktop apps need extensibility.
Castro wasn't even a communist when he started. He went that way because US was supporting Batista, and soviets were the only ones who'd give him support.
In this case, US didn't tell them anything. Rather, it gave them a tool to discuss it between themselves. What's your beef with that?
Dynamically compiling code has some advantages unrelated to security or portability. For example, try efficiently implementing generic virtual methods without a JIT.
.NET JIT always compiles, it doesn't have a bytecode interpreter at all. That's why it has to be faster than Java's, and why it doesn't optimize as well.
.NET apps compiled for "AnyCPU" will, technically, run just fine on Windows RT on ARM. The reason why you can't actually run such desktop apps is because it is blocked by signature verifier (any desktop app must be signed by MS to run on RT). It's a DRM thing, not a technical limitation.
Oh, and huge parts of Office use