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Submission + - Record ozone hole may open over Arctic in the spring (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: Lingering atmospheric pollutants and a blast of frigid air have carved an unusually deep hole in Earth’s protective ozone layer over the Arctic, and it threatens to get deeper. Atmospheric scientists are analyzing data from weather balloons and satellites for clues to how the ozone will fare when sunlight—a third factor in ozone loss—returns to the Arctic in the spring. But they are already worrying about how extra ultraviolet light might affect humans and ecosystems below and wondering whether climate change will make such Arctic holes more common or severe.

Submission + - The sexual misconduct case that has rocked anthropology (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: An investigative report Science’s describes allegations of sexual misconduct against noted paleoanthropologist Brian Richmond, as well as the field’s response. The story highlights a major shift in how academic communities deal with sexual misconduct, going beyond delineating rules on paper to striving to change the culture of the field at the institutional level. This shift – “a long time coming,” according to many researchers – was spurred in part by recent high-profile cases in astronomy and biology. Now, as Balter notes, “paleoanthropology is responding to its own complex case.” The first public allegation against Richmond, the curator of human origins at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, inspired a cascade of other allegations about him. This in turn motivated several senior paleoanthropologists, including one of Richmond’s key mentors, Bernard Wood, to explore the allegations with peers. “As I talked to more and more current and former students at [George Washington University],” Wood said, “I became more concerned and alarmed about what I heard.” In light of their findings, Wood and others in the field of anthropology are now tackling sexual misconduct head-on. The article details additional institutional efforts to stop sexual misconduct in science while trying to balance the rights of victims and accused, and provides the latest update on investigations into Richmond.

Submission + - NSF increases rely on spending plan Congress won't like (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: The Obama administration has requested a $500-million increase for the National Science Foundation (NSF). But $400 million comes from a funding source that the Republican Congress is unlikely to even recognize, much less embrace. Such is the budgetary legerdemain of a presidency in its last year in office.

The requested 6.7% increase for NSF, to $7.964 billion, includes money from both discretionary and mandatory spending streams. The first is the pot that Congress appropriates each year, and a budget agreement struck last December puts a cap on that amount. Only $100 million, or 1.3%, of NSF’s requested increase draws from that discretionary source. The rest of NSF’s increase rests on tapping revenues from the sale of various federal assets, a dubious prospect given pledges by conservative legislators to shrink rather than grow overall government spending.

Submission + - Email stokes rumor that gravitational waves have been spotted (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: t's just a rumor, but if specificity is any measure of credibility, it might just be right. For weeks, gossip has spread around the Internet that researchers with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) have spotted gravitational waves—ripples in space itself set off by violent astrophysical events. In particular, rumor has it that LIGO physicists have seen two black holes spiraling into each other and merging. But now, an email message that ended up on Twitter adds some specific numbers to those rumors. The author says he got the details from people who have seen the manuscript of the LIGO paper that will describe the discovery.

Submission + - French company bungled clinical trial that led to a death and illness (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: Why one man died and four others fell ill during a drug safety study in France last month is still very unclear. But a preliminary inspection report lashes out at Biotrial, the company that conducted the study, for how it responded after the first volunteer in the clinical trial was hospitalized. Three major errors by Biotrial put other volunteers at risk, says the report, published yesterday by France's General Inspectorate of Social Affairs.

Submission + - DNA makes lifeless materials shapeshift (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: Researchers have engineered tiny gold particles that can assemble into a variety of crystalline structures simply by adding a bit of DNA to the solution that surrounds them. Down the road, such reprogrammable particles could be used to make materials that reshape themselves in response to light, or to create novel catalysts that reshape themselves as reactions proceed.

Submission + - NSF breaks new ground in reprimanding authors of flawed Science paper (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: Retractions of scientific papers are common. But not this one. The retraction by Science of a 12-year-old paper based on research funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) breaks new ground in what a federal agency can require scientists to do to set the record straight—and the role that journals play in weeding out flawed papers.

Submission + - Trees, regardless of size, all break at the same wind speed. Here's why. (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: When a cyclone named Klaus tore across southwestern France in January 2009, it highlighted a strange phenomenon: Trees, regardless of their diameter, height, or elastic properties, don’t tend to break until wind speeds reach about 42 m/s (94 mph). This seemingly odd convergence has actually been observed by several historical scientists, including Galileo and Leonardo de Vinci, both of whom suggested that a mathematical law could explain the resistance of wooden beams under stress. Now, using data from a new experiment, scientists say they have found that law.

Submission + - Panel endorses mitochondrial therapy, but says start with male embryos (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: An experimental assisted reproduction technique that could allow some families to avoid having children with certain types of heritable disease should be allowed to go forward in the United States, provided it proceeds slowly and cautiously. That is the conclusion of a report released today from a panel organized by the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NAS), which assesses the ethics questions surrounding the controversial technique called mitochondrial DNA replacement therapy.

More controversially, however, the panel recommended that only altered male embryos should be used to attempt a pregnancy, to limit the possible risks to future generations. (Males can’t pass along the mitochondrial DNA that is altered in the procedure.)

Submission + - Suicide of aging cells prolongs life span in mice (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: They are lurking in your heart, your liver, your kidneys, and maybe even your brain: run-down cells that could be making you age. A new study of mice shows that spurring these so-called senescent cells to self-destruct extends the animals’ lives and delays some aspects of aging. When researchers gave mice a drug that selectively targeted these elderly cells, the animals lived 20% longer and displayed more youthful behaviors (risk taking, etc.) than their non-treated counterparts.

Submission + - U.K. researcher receives permission to edit genes in human embryos (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: Developmental biologist Kathy Niakan has received permission from U.K. authorities to modify human embryos using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing technology. Niakan, who works at the Francis Crick Institute in London, applied for permission to use the technique in studies to better understand the role of key genes during the first few days of human embryo development.

The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), which grants licenses for work with human embryos, sperm, and eggs in the United Kingdom, approved Niakan’s application at a meeting of HFEA's license committee on 14 January. The minutes of that meeting state that, “[o]n balance, the proposed use of CRISPR/Cas9 was considered by the Committee to offer better potential for success, and was a justified technical approach to obtaining research data about gene function from the embryos used.”

Submission + - Math whizzes of ancient Babylon figured out forerunner of calculus (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: Tracking and recording the motion of the sun, the moon, and the planets as they paraded across the desert sky, ancient Babylonian astronomers used simple arithmetic to predict the positions of celestial bodies. Now, new evidence reveals that these astronomers, working several centuries B.C.E., also employed sophisticated geometric methods that foreshadow the development of calculus. Historians had thought such techniques did not emerge until more than 1400 years later, in 14th century Europe.

Submission + - New wristband measures sweat to monitor health risks (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: Most fitness trackers—even the most sophisticated ones on the market—can’t do much more than count your steps or measure your heart rate. But researchers have developed a device that can do much more: Built into a headband or wristband, it can monitor chemicals in the body’s sweat that may be used to non-invasively assess medical conditions, discern drug abuse, or help coaches and trainers optimize the performance of elite athletes, scientists say.

Submission + - 'Huge leap forward': Computer that mimics human brain beats professional at Go (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: Eighteen years after a computer beat then-reigning world champion Garry Kasparov at chess, a machine has defeated a professional player at the ancient eastern board game Go. The new advance is much bigger, artificial intelligence (AI) researchers say, as Go is such a computationally demanding game that even a decade ago some researchers thought a computer would never defeat a human expert. What's more, the machine won not by virtue of overwhelming computational power, but by employing "machine learning" tools that enable it to teach itself and to think more like humans do.

Submission + - Consciousness may be the product of carefully balanced chaos (sciencemag.org)

sciencehabit writes: Is my yellow the same as your yellow? Does your pain feel like my pain? The question of whether the human consciousness is subjective or objective is largely philosophical. But the line between consciousness and unconsciousness is a bit easier to measure. In a new study of how anesthetic drugs affect the brain, researchers suggest that our experience of reality is the product of a delicate balance of connectivity between neurons—too much or too little and consciousness slips away.

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