I used to be like you. "Read my lips, no new taxes!" Taxes are bad, taxes are the devil, they get so much and waste so much already.
Until I became treasurer on my homeowner's board. We are required by our master deed (which is approved and registered with the city, therefore is legally binding) to provide certain services. A new regulation from Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac states that we must take on a certain expense or they will not back loans issued in our neighborhood. If they do not back the loan, then 95% of mortgage companies will not issue it because they can't sell the liability. Therefore, no one in our neighborhood can sell their home unless the buyer pays 100% cash.
This expense represents a 35% increase in our budget. We cannot legally cut services. So we have to issue a "tax" (dues increase to the HOA) to cover the cost. The benefit to the community is that they will be able to sell their homes again--we've already seen a 20% loss in value.
So yes, taxes are sometimes necessary. In my case it's forced from the outside. In the government's case, it could be due to waste and inefficiency but I'm willing to bet that is a very small percentage (and a study I've read of welfare waste backs this up). It could also be due to increasing population, increased infrastructure regulatory requirements, dwindling resources, etc, etc, etc.