Honestly, after the p-value article, why is this crap still being published? p value was said to mean its worth a second look, but NOT imply anything else
Second, notice its not in PLOS one. Wonder why? Oh right, they require all data to be public, so you can't "use a model" that just happens to make the results you were looking for.
Lastly, percentages e.g. 19 times more likely! See http://xkcd.com/1252/ Without the baseline, this 19 times more likely is utterly useless. If their "average case" had a 0.000000000001% chance of death, 19 times that would be 0.000000000019% Thats still pretty low. It reeks of numbers manipulation in an attempt for publicity and funding. If the baseline was something reasonably high, like say 1%, and it jumped to 19%, sure that's quite significant! However, were that the case, it would be far more exciting to say that, than simply 19 times, and they would have done so. My guess is my examples are hyperbole, and the actual is probably closer to 0.1 with those markers, their modeling, number fudging, etc, 1.9%. Still not an accurate predictor of mortality, and basically useless.
Fortunately there's a paper linked to in the summary that answers your concerns.
The 5-y mortality for persons with a biomarker score within the highest quintile was 19 times higher than for those in the lowest quintile (288 versus 15 deaths during 5 y, corresponding to 15.3% versus 0.8%). Individuals within the highest quintile were further differentiated in terms of their short-term probability of dying according to their biomarker score percentiles: 23% of the individuals with a biomarker score within the highest percentile had died within the first year of follow-up (23 out of 99), and the estimated 5-y mortality was 49% (Figure 5B).
I'm not gonna run the numbers but 288 vs 15 is probably outside of most p-values.
Also note this was a replication of another study, once could be publication bias, but replication raises the odds you're looking at something real.
23% first year mortality for the highest percentile group?? That's definitely something worth writing home about (and you might want to send a will along with it).