So, the sample must sit on a very narrow area on the plate with the diffuser. Mah looks like we did not break free from the real limitations then. If we could do this in the middle of a cell, that may be something.
The point they make is that you can use this diffuser as a - perfect- lens because one can compensate the phase distortion really well. The image they get is in resolution close to the theoretical wave limit. The surprise is that this works better than the classical approach of making optics: trying to fight off spherical aberration by making good multi-element lenses. So, nice job compensating.
But that's it The sample still needs to sit on a small confined are on their plate. There are other techniques that will show the sample with visible light with way more resolution, in particular Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy will go down to a few nm!
So, in my opinion nice work, good prank, but way way over sold. This would have done nice in optics express but seems out of place in Phys Ref letters.