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republicans were drooling over gutting glass-steagall since reagan and finally some republican congrescritters got the bill done, and clinton signed it, therefore all democrats fault
No, did I say that? No, I didn't.
some democrats went along for the republican cooked up lying premise for war in iraq. therefore all democrats fault
No, did I say that? No, I didn't. Both parties are rather dumb. They're made up of politicians, after all.
the republican crimes of tanking the economy with the wonders of deregulation, and wasting trillions of dollars and thousands of lives on a completely pointless iraq war that made things worse
Well actually that's it. You blame all those things on Republicans, but it was Clinton who got rid of Glass-Steagall - on the contrary, Bush gave us more regulation with SOX. With the Iraq war (which I opposed from the beginning)......so many democrats voted for it, only a blind partisan would blame it solely on one party or the other (but Bush still sucks).
The reality is, there is no position held by either party, that they wouldn't switch within a few years if it became politically advantageous. That is the secret to the parties' longevity.
Seriously though, Daniel Bernstein has put a lot of thought into that question. You can start here.
1) Formalization of 'Covenant Not to Sue.'
2) Makes it harder to sue the customer when the manufacturer commits a patent violation.
3) Commissions various interesting studies on the effectiveness (or on the negative effects) of patents.
There might be more but I only have so much tolerance for reading legalese......
My point is that any time you create an original work using someone else's characters, you've already met 3 of the 4 criteria above,
Nah, it's still not necessarily transformative. This link discusses the distinction. Also, notice the distinction between satire and parody.