It's even worse than that. Tin whiskers - it's a characteristic of the metal. No one knows why, the only suspicion we have is Tin does it to relieve stress in the crystal.
Fullerenes aren't crystals, though. For the same reason that graphene and nanotubes don't have carbon wandering around all over the place, neither is tin likely to. In fact, given the higher mass of a tin atom compared to carbon, it could be a whole lot harder to get one to leave its place in the array.
1. If a sheet of 1 atom thickness can transport x A/m at no loss, (ampere per meter of sheet), then how close can you stack these sheets together before x becomes significantly less?
And the related question of whether the change is dramatic enough that it can be used for active devices. Hmmmm
Note that this is much less of an issue for power distribution on-chip because stacking layers can dramatically reduce field strength by coupling currents in opposite directions (and incidentally create bypass capacitance, of which there is never enough.)
2. If there is a (mutual) magnetic interference between two layers that destroys the superconducting effect, then will the superconductor actually work when immersed in an external magnetic field?
Unless the critical field is really low, which seems unlikely at room temperature, this isn't going to be a problem for anyone not building MRIs or particle accelerators.
What is the maximum current that can be transported through strips of various widths?
Mostly moot. The really nasty consequence of conductive losses in semiconductors is that it degrades signals traveling across the chip. We insert buffers along the route to restore signal amplitude and reduce delays (those RC delays are ugly). This would zero the resistance and reduce the capacitance, which is a big deal. Also, for reliability reasons, we'd probably build laminates with multiple layers separated by dielectrics.
How sensitive to defects is the process?
Depends on the width of the path. The usual solution is to add redundancy, multiple single-atom layers separated by dielectric. Vertical space on chips is relatively cheap, as long as you don't need to use extra mask layers or move the material from one process stage to another.
Tin is going to be a major problem for much semiconductor processing - as it means you basically now can't solder the chip, or do any even 'low' temperature processing after it's deposited - it has to be the last layer.
We don't solder the devices directly anyway -- the organic dielectrics used in advanced processes like the old metal-melting temperatures even less than tin does.
For those of you not in the semiconductor business, the fact that these conductive strips is pretty important too. Most of the capacitance (that has to be charged and discharged whenever a node switches, causing losses in the transistors driving the node) is sidewall capacitance: capacitance between adjacent lines on the same level. Single-layer conductors won't completely do away with lateral capacitance (fringing, for instance) and the vertical capacitance will still be there -- but there's going to be a big reduction in power if they can get this to work. My guess is that by the time it reaches production it won't exactly be one layer, either -- it'll be a laminate with multiple redundant layers.
Always assuming the predictions play out.
So you're saying nobody anywhere ever, other than the government, would fund climate research? That just makes no sense at all.
Not only that, but there are glaring counterexamples. Koch money, for instance, funded BEST.
All sorts of comments possible on that one, but I'll leave them for another day.
One thing I've noticed as a passenger is that the most dangerous-feeling aspect of flying right now seems to be the winding security line itself.
Hardly surprising. Thousands of people packed tighter than they will be on board, all it would take is one suicide bomber (you know how much explosive and shrapnel can be packed into a roller bag? Never mind nerve gas.) to wipe out more people than have died in the USA to air travel since commercial flight began.
But don't worry. If it ever happens, TSA will adopt new procedures that will have people go through a security examination checkpoint before getting into the security line.
This is just a stupid typical politician move to get people to pay attention to them. This is also why we can't have a balanced budget: Instead of taking away useless programs, they decide to cut funding from things that people will complain the loudest about, that way they can keep all of their pet projects.
Add up Social Security, Medicare, interest on the debt, the Defense Department, and Veteran's Affairs. Subtract tax revenues. You're already way into red ink. I'm not counting the CDC, FEMA, FDA, NIH, or any of the other nickle-and-dime line items.
So, according to your definition of "useless programs," which would you propose to cut? Social Security? Medicare? Veterans Affairs? Do please be specific.
My first experience with the newer thin seats was on Continental maybe ten years ago. Within fifteen minutes of sitting down, half the muscles in my back were spasming. The only position I could stand was leaning far forward with my elbows on my knees. After that, I refused to fly Continental except for one case where the usual emergency reschedule landed me on one flying from Atlanta to Phoenix. Spent the whole trip "in the position" -- and I noticed that there were several others, incuding the woman next to me. We compared notes, same story.
And if anyone tells you that packing in more passengers side-by-side won't be noticable, you can bet that either they always fly in first class or are damned small people. As is, put three men of even average size next to each other in a row and at least one of them has to lean forward or twist sideways to make room for all of the shoulder width. Never mind sitting next to someone who weighs 400 pounds and insists on putting the seat arms up so she can overflow into your lap.