While I can not comment on the content or merit of this work since I have not read the paper I can say that there is a lot of research going on in the area of MRI and a number of exciting things are happening. I work in a research group that works on impressive MRI techniques combined with algorithms that allow taking entire MRI movies (not just photographs). This is extremely interesting when looking at the beating human heart, speaking humans or moving joints. We are really just beginning to explore the potential this technology has for clinical applications. More information including impressive videos can be found here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real-time_MRI.
The idea behind the extremely fast acquisition times is extreme under-sampling combined with iterative algorithms that are able to produce high quality images despite the incomplete measurements. This algorithms also exploit the fact that between two frames there is not a lot of change in the images since they are taken at time intervals of only dozens of ms. They are of course more complicated than simple fourier transforms as they model the acquisition process in more detail.
template<class S1, class S2> struct cartesian_product_types
template<class V, class S, class State>
typedef typename boost::mpl::fold<S
, boost::mpl::push_back< boost::mpl::_1
typedef typename boost::mpl::fold<S1
, inner<boost::mpl::_2, S2, boost::mpl::_1>
But seriously, I think the language is amazing. The fact that they built a turing-complete language inside the template engine essentially by accident (thus allowing meta programming and modern C++), the fact that by now we can write simple compile time compilers (see boost proto) and the fact that you can so radically change the syntax of the language that you can basically make it look like anything you want should convince someone who spends some time with a C++ compiler and a couple of Boost libraries of this fact.
From the description: The Numerical Template Toolbox (NT2) is an Open Source C++ library aimed at simplifying the development, debugging and optimization of high-performance computing application by providing a Matlab like syntax that ease the transition between prototype and actual application.
A way to contribute would be to make yourself familiar with it's use (e.g. port some of your Matlab scripts). Try to understand the basics of how it works internally. You will find features missing that you could try to add. Above all though, you will learn a lot.