Harmony in music is based almost directly on the simplicity of the ratio of the frequencies of notes in a chord.
Octave = 1/2
Fifth = 2/3
Fourth = 3/4
Major Third = 4/5
Minor Third = 5/6
and so on.
Their are certain cultural anomalies; For example our our preference for three notes in a simple chord (first, third and fifth) means that fourths are generally considered slightly more disharmonious that thirds, due to their relationship to the third and the fifth.
Also the intervals in most instruments are fudged slightly to make the work in any key. This practice started with Bach I believe.
The point, of course, is that it is not that surprising that harmony is more universal that human culture. The mathematics that underlies harmony is more universal than human culture.