B.A. vs. B.S. means nothing. My university offered Computer Science through the College of Letters and Sciences, and only offered a B.A. Of course, that was the only thing that the entire college offered. You would get a B.A. in Physics just as you would get a B.A. in Music or Art History. The B.A. vs. B.S. distinction is entirely BS (sorry, couldn't resist).
Furthermore, at most schools, at least most good schools, algorithms is only a small part of the study of CS. When I got my degree, I studied lots of things, including algorithms, data structure, computability theory, electrical engineering (very basic), computer architecture, compilers, databases, artificial intelligence, and probably a couple classes I can't even begin to remember. Yes, a true software engineering course was missing, but heck, it was years ago.
As for our little "fresh out of school" guy, well, get a job. Seriously. Nobody expects you to be able to solve the world's problems straight out of school. You're a junior guy. Go get a job, and work on interesting things. You'll first be a grunt, and if you're good, your understanding of how things work, and your responsibilities, will both increase over time. You'll eventually have the experience necessary to solve the problems you want to solve.