Affirmative Action is ultimately a futile gesture in that by the time a student reaches college, it's too late. Essentially, A.A. is closing the barn doors after the horses have fled.
Assuming two children with the same abilities, the primary indicators of academic success will be the Primary and Secondary schools and parental involvement, irrespective of economic situations, the vast majority of the time.
Efforts should be focused on improving the Primary and Secondary schools...variables that government can influence. Note that Improving does not automatically mean more money. School Choice, Teacher accountability, better discipline ( I favor laws that would immunize teachers from prosecution in self defense situations and intervention in altercations and also vastly increased powers of teachers to discipline students), to name a few.
I have no idea how to improve parental involvement.
But in the end, letting them go through the Hell that is our Elementary, Jr, and High school systems and THEN being concerned about them getting into college is just plain stupid.