The US attempted to build a version of the British "Grand Slam" bomb. Fixing some of the aerodynamic issues and making assorted other "improvements", they ended up with a 44,000 lb. conventional unguided bomb. The Tallboy/Grand Slam series of bombs worked on a very simple principle - you send a gigantic shockwave through the ground as a result of an impact very close to mach 1, and a second shockwave through the ground as a result of a shaped charge.
This type of bomb destroys pretty much anything at the boundary between two different materials. So if you dropped one of these bombs on a reinforced concrete bunker, you'd pulverize the inside of the bunker without having to actually punch a hole right the way through. They were superb at taking out dams, far better than the bouncing bomb (Barnes Wallis designed both), because you didn't have to hit the dam at all. The interface between dam and valley was a weakpoint that, if shredded, would achieve exactly the same effect the bouncing bomb did - far more reliably and without the vulnerability.
The British version worked brilliantly. If, by "brilliantly", you mean removing all the armour, defences and bomb bay doors from a Lancaster bomber. Ok, to be fair, it did exactly what was intended. It destroyed ships, dams and factories in a way that no bomb before could.
So, what did the US version do?
What it should have done is make a mess of bunkers with 22' of reinforced concrete or less, and severely disrupt heavier bunkers than that.
What it actually did was nothing. The B-52 carrying the prototype managed to get to the end of the runway before running out of fuel.
What it did next was also nothing. The US abandoned all further work on it, as tactical nuclear weapons would have had more punch at a lighter weight.
Would it have changed warfare? It might have reduced the number of survivors from Tora Bora by a small amount, but the US had gas/incindiary bombs and air pressure bombs that could reach into the deepest caves there. An earthquake bomb might have reduced the time needed, but that's it. It might also have changed the Iraq invasion. A bomb that could pulverize deep bunkers would have made it much harder for neocons to claim WMDs were being stored in such bunkers. If you can target them directly, conventionally and reliably, your obvious next question is to ask where these bunkers are. Since US intelligence knew of no such bunkers, it would have had no positions to give.
Would it change the dynamics with Iran? The Iranians have placed their nuclear technology in bunkers with walls too thick for most conventional bombs and smaller tactical nukes. The concrete also uses a recipe that was, when last demonstrated in a technology exhibition in the US, around a hundred times stronger than the reinforced concrete used by the US military. However, strength doesn't matter here. The whole idea of sending a shockwave is that a hard, consistent medium delivers the shockwave that much better to the other side. And modern explosives are rather better than torpex. Having said that, there is still no US bomber capable of carrying such a weapon and there's no guarantee such a bomb would do anything worthwhile.
The next US project was also a variant of a Barnes Wallis design. They built a variant of the bouncing bomb. Originally, the bomb was never intended to attack things like dams, it was intended to lift ships out of the water. Military ships, especially, are not self-supporting structures. Lifted, even briefly and by a small amount, would be sufficient to break the back of a ship. Even if that didn't work, placing a bomb directly under a ship would likely crack the hull anyway. It would then sink almost immediately. Sinking at that speed would also pretty much guarantee no survivors. Barnes Wallis was incredibly sensitive to human cost, but his military inventions (only a small fraction of all the work he actually did) were designed to perform a specific task extremely well.
In this case, he was off by a bit. The bouncing bomb was used against a few ships but their frailty and the defenders' capabilities meant they never did anything at sea. On land, we all know the story there. An expensive story, to be sure, but proof of the design nonetheless.
The US decided the theory was sound enough that they wanted a version to play with. They used much better construction techniques, higher revs on the barrel and a bigger explosive. They fitted up an aircraft with a prototype and tested it out. The bomb ricocheted off the water and struck the bomber, blowing it out of the sky. No further prototypes were developed.
Would it have changed the course of warfare? A bouncing bomb that worked at sea would have rendered virtually all navies obsolete. Argentinian aircraft certainly got close enough to British ships to be able to use it, for example. They regularly dropped bombs on the Royal Navy vessels there, but the bombs had timer fuses and the hulls were thin. As a result, a few of those bombs passed through the ships and exploded at a safe depth. A bouncing bomb would have changed the story completely. They'd have been able to sink far more ships, with far fewer survivors. Possibly including the Ark Royal. Without carriers, the British would not have been able to retake the islands (a big reason why Argentinian noise right now, when Britain has no carriers at all, is troubling).
There really hasn't been any other significant battle involving a navy under serious air assault, so there has been no other conflict (so far) in which the vulnerability of ships to a working version of such a weapon would have mattered.
Ships have proven themselves far more vulnerable to navigational errors (the British and US have both lost ships to captains pitting their destroyers against charted reefs) and to commando attacks (the British sent a commando team with limpet mines against the Germans, the French sent a commando team with some sort of sticky bomb against the Rainbow Warrior, and some bunch of fanatics did EXACTLY THE SAME THING against the USS Cole). Since commandos are cheap and expendable, whereas bouncing bombs are expensive and expendable, it's no great surprise that every military and paramilitary group on the planet has adopted this approach. I don't think it's acceptable outside of a declared war, but the total action taken against France (none) shows that I'm in a minority of 1.