First of all I'm surprised nothing more fried, especially from whatever other appliances the locals surely have.
To prevent damage from a simple overload yes a replaceable fuse and some MOVs would be the ticket; the only thing is that MOVs can absorb only so much energy and they get damaged at every hit (possibly the very first one). I don't know if anybody makes a commercial light (for travel) surge protector with replaceable fuses (maybe even MOVs). Probably it would be a nice project to make one yourself, the parts are quite cheap (and you can chose precisely what you want); the only problem would be the enclosure itself (maybe you can re-purpose one of the larger travel socket adapters). What works well in your advantage is the low power you need (for laptop and such), many surge protectors are rated for a lot of amps so they need a beefy fuse so it doesn't trip when you use your hairdryer for example...
However, I still wouldn't want to increase the complexity of my setup with some protection box, something that doesn't add any other features beside protection. As you mention India you might have noticed in any populated place they have people repairing everything, from laptops to mobile phones - they are sometimes doing complicated soldering jobs literally by the side of the road. Also "universal" laptop power supplies are usually available and they do work fine usually unless you have a particularly fancy laptop (I wouldn't let them plugged at home for sure but in a pinch they're better than nothing).
As for the USBs that don't charge things that are supposed to be charged by USB - I haven't seen for many years things that really don't work at all (I'm referring to things like phones, tablets, etc - stuff that needs to charge, not hard drives, that's another story). The laptops/desktops got better and better and giving power over USB and the devices themselves got better at accepting well under 5V inputs without stopping charging completely. If you want some insurance on this side I'd recommend a USB power bank, not a big one (unless you really want a big one), even one with only one 18650 battery would do (be sure to read some tests, many "numbers" are pure marketing).
If you get a good power bank you can recharge it from anything and power any of your finicky devices. You can also use it for more things than just the obvious, for example you can use it to firewall your device from strange USB charging ports (in the airport/planes/etc) - be aware not all power banks support charging and discharging at the same time, you can use it to "get some juice" without having the phone tied to the wall, etc.
Of course I didn't mean to drop your original charger. In fact my setup is the following:
- man purse - phone, small (but 2+A) USB charger, short cable, small powerbank
- laptop bag - laptop, laptop PS, long USB cable