In Belgium if you want a credit ANY credit, they will look at the National Bank on how much you already have in credits and loans.
They will ask for an official paper of your income of the last two months. They also have info about other costs, like rent.
So now they can see what your income is and what your expenses are and they will see if you are allowed that credit or not. If you disrespect that, the customer does not need to pay anything back. Yes, ALL of the money does not need to be paid back.
If you have a bad payment with a credit company, it will be mentioned and you will not be able to get any credit or loan and it could even mean all current credits will be blocked. So no payment on your car loan? You credit cards will be blocked.
Most of this is automated. Each company will have minor differences on how to calculate it, depending also on the type of credit. There will however be no prepping.
The only way to get a credit when you are not allowed to get a credit is fraud. And obviously then the company is not responsible if they can proof that they did everything to detect fraud.
If an employee would do fraud so he can get his commission, he will most likely not only loose his job, but might be held responsible for the money as well.
The major reasons for not getting a credit are:
1) Blacklisted on the National Bank
2) No regular income (e.g. working as a temp or just 1 or 2 months at a company)
3) Not enough income for the credit you ask
4) No valid ID (Obligatory in Belgium)
It is free to check if an ID has been notified as stolen (online). If you do not do that check, you are responsible.
Sometimes people try to shop around, but most likely if one says no, they all will say no (for the same amount).
Solutions can be to close unused credit cards and other credits.
Although not perfect, it is pretty good. When doing a check at the BNB, the credit company will be able to identify his own credits and only the money from the others and the type of credit, but not the company.