I wonder if this is really aimed at academia.edu rather than the authors. As far as I can tell, Elsevier hasn't (yet, at least) gone after academics posting their own papers on their own website in the traditional manner, i.e. as a PDF at www.university.edu/~jsmith/papers/smith2013bigresult.pdf.
The devices we commonly call computers literally translate abstract into action. The computer is the invention, not the abstract instructions.
That's 4.5 kilowatt-hours per day. I.e. in a day, it draws 4.5 kWh of energy.
A watt is a unit of power. A watt-hour is a unit of energy. 1 Wh = 1 W x 1 h. Similarly, 1 kWh = 1 kW x 1h. A 200-watt motor left on for an hour will draw 200 Wh of energy. A 200-watt motor left on all thetime will draw 200 W x 24 h = 4.8 kWh of energy per day.
I think you're overestimating the current supreme court. They're punters (literally) in that they prefer to punt on any issue before them. Usually copouts include lack of standing and defering to other branches of government. Ever seen a movie where a couple well hung stubs double penetrate a woman while her small-dicked cuckold husband watches helplessly? (Don't lie -- the NSA knows). Well, the woman is us, getting fucked by congress and the president while the supreme court does nothing.
Yeah, Monty's writing on these topics is exceptionally clear. His series on the Daala video codec introduces modern video encoding in a way that's amazingly accessible. Maybe he should write a textbook.
True, although that's not the default. Extradition, mostly for computer crimes, is based on the somewhat dumb theory that if something happens to an American computer, the perpetrator was "in" the USA for legal purposes, even if he or she has never actually visited the USA and has nothing to do with the country. There is also a small category of explicitly extraterritorial laws; for example, it's illegal, under U.S. law, for an American to travel to another country for the purpose of underage sex, as defined in the U.S. statute. Most laws aren't extraterritorial, though. If you murder someone in Germany, you won't be prosecuted under American homicide law, but German law. And if you smoke pot in a coffee shop in Amsterdam, you aren't violating U.S. drug laws.
Paul Rand is dead, though.
"(3) In the case of anonymous or pseudonymous works, the term of protection granted by this Convention shall expire fifty years after the work has been lawfully made available to the public. However, when the pseudonym adopted by the author leaves no doubt as to his identity, the term of protection shall be that provided in paragraph (1). If the author of an anonymous or pseudonymous work discloses his identity during the above-mentioned period, the term of protection applicable shall be that provided in paragraph (1). The countries of the Union shall not be required to protect anonymous or pseudonymous works in respect of which it is reasonable to presume that their author has been dead for fifty years."
Virtually everyone is a Berne Convention signatory; but actual implementation in domestic law has been both spottier and more...complex... than the convention text itself. It seems unlikely that something of clearly recent authorship would find itself presumed to be uncopyrighted merely because an author could not be found; but I'd imagine that, in practice, the more risk-averse would be very, very, jumpy about taking 'anonymous coward' at his word that they are authorized to use a given piece of code under the terms of whatever license, that he is even the author, and so forth. That might hinder adoption.
There is no such thing as intrinsic value to begin with. People place value in things.
Capital-V "VALUE" is a purely mental abstraction, about which one can wax Platonic and ultimately empty; but the distinction between commodities or instruments with substantial utility (iron, aluminum, books, potatoes) and ones that are kept around mostly because they symbolize 'value' ($20 bills, gold, bitcoins) is arguably still relevant.
I don't entirely like the term 'intrinsic value', 'utility' might be closer; but some commodities are like D-list celebrities, who are famous primarily for their fame, and are valued primarily for their value, while others are valued because of the various purposes they serve. The lists overlap (gold, say, has a number of specialty applications in electronics; but would be extremely unlikely to command its present price if it had the same prestige as iron); but even when they do, the delta between the assigned value and the value in utility is usually pretty noticeable.
(Please note, the above should not be construed as implicit endorsement of bitcoins; but merely an observation that so long as the rewards for gambling with other people's money are so good, people will find ways of doing risky things in basically any asset class.)