What you described is nothing more then a full security / disaster recovery audit. If your data center (and management) is really serious about it the company will need to invest both time and money to protect itself.
- Create your security policies. This has to be directed from a management level that can put teeth into it, as well as people who understand what the real risks to the business are. Company lawyers and people with business continuity experience might be involved depending on the consequences of what a data breach or disaster might do to the business.
- determine what risks your business has
- determine what needs to be done to mitigate the identified risks
- determine what needs to be logged in order to allow forensic analysis (assume that the compromised system(s) logs themselves may have been corrupted as part of the breach)
- Make sure that the policies do not break the business. Also realize that security policies may require some processes to change.
- Understand that implementing security polices can be expensive.
- Employee education is a necessary step. Make sure employees understand what is being asked of them, and make sure that they understand what the policies are.
- Ensure that you have a designated security focal point.
- You will probably need an exception process. Make sure that any exceptions are documented with management, what is being done to mitigate any risks the exception have exposed and how long the exception needs to be in place.
Once you have your policies in place and everyone has "signed off" that they are in compliance, you can start with the auditing.
- Have some level of auditing where it's a "friendly" review of the systems.
- Audits should not instill fear, however there may need to be real consequences for negligent audit failures (depending on the business and type of data).
- Depending on the business, you may want to have an independent auditing group come in and review your systems and policies
- During an audit, system or process owners should only be held accountable to what is in the security policies. If the audit finds issues that are outside the policies, then management and the policy owner needs to respond.
One additional comment, depending on the size of the organization, there may be a security group. If there is one, then it should be the responsibility of this group to perform any security monitoring or testing. Individuals outside the group should not be performing their own security or intrusion testing of systems that they are not directly responsible for. If a vulnerability is uncovered, it should be documented and reported to the security focal point and management.
James Madison, (you may have remembered his name as he was one of the primary authors of the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights, fourth president of the US, etc..), wrote under the pseudonym Publius a letter that was published in news papers in and around this new group of states. A whole series of these letters and essays, which are now collectively known as the Federalist Papers, were written to help explain to the people why they should ratify this new document and accept this new form of government. The people at that time were a little on the leery side and really didn't have a lot of trust in governments (having just fought a war with England and such).
In the Federalist Paper #46 Madison wrote
The only refuge left for those who prophesy the downfall of the State governments is the visionary supposition that the federal government may previously accumulate a military force for the projects of ambition. The reasonings contained in these papers must have been employed to little purpose indeed, if it could be necessary now to disprove the reality of this danger. That the people and the States should, for a sufficient period of time, elect an uninterupted succession of men ready to betray both; that the traitors should, throughout this period, uniformly and systematically pursue some fixed plan for the extension of the military establishment; that the governments and the people of the States should silently and patiently behold the gathering storm, and continue to supply the materials, until it should be prepared to burst on their own heads, must appear to every one more like the incoherent dreams of a delirious jealousy, or the misjudged exaggerations of a counterfeit zeal, than like the sober apprehensions of genuine patriotism.
Extravagant as the supposition is, let it however be made. Let a regular army, fully equal to the resources of the country, be formed; and let it be entirely at the devotion of the federal government; still it would not be going too far to say, that the State governments, with the people on their side, would be able to repel the danger. The highest number to which, according to the best computation, a standing army can be carried in any country, does not exceed one hundredth part of the whole number of souls; or one twenty-fifth part of the number able to bear arms. This proportion would not yield, in the United States, an army of more than twenty-five or thirty thousand men. To these would be opposed a militia amounting to near half a million of citizens with arms in their hands, officered by men chosen from among themselves, fighting for their common liberties, and united and conducted by governments possessing their affections and confidence. It may well be doubted, whether a militia thus circumstanced could ever be conquered by such a proportion of regular troops. Those who are best acquainted with the last successful resistance of this country against the British arms, will be most inclined to deny the possibility of it. Besides the advantage of being armed, which the Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation, the existence of subordinate governments, to which the people are attached, and by which the militia officers are appointed, forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition, more insurmountable than any which a simple government of any form can admit of. Notwithstanding the military establishments in the several kingdoms of Europe, which are carried as far as the public resources will bear, the governments are afraid to trust the people with arms. And it is not certain, that with this aid alone they would not be able to shake off their yokes. But were the people to possess the additional advantages of local governments chosen by themselves, who could collect the national will and direct the national force, and of officers appointed out of the militia, by these governments, and attached both to them and to the militia, it may be affirmed with the greatest assurance, that the throne of every tyranny in Europe would be speedily overturned in spite of the legions which surround it.
Federalist Papers #46 James Madison as Publius writing to the People of New York, January 29, 1788 The Federalist Papers : No. 46 from the Avalon Project at Yale
Something to think about when trying to frame the wording of the 2nd amendment
Mel's story is a wonderful example.
A federal judge on Friday struck down an effort to form a class action lawsuit to go after Apple, Google and five other technology companies for allegedly forming an illegal cartel to tamp down workers' wages and prevent the loss of their best engineers during a multiyear conspiracy broken up by government regulators.
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If I called a towing company claimed that the car you had parked in your driveway was mine and that I wanted it towed to my house, that would be theft.
If I add in my phone... stock android -> Cyanogenmod
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"MPEG has been producing standards that provide industry with the best video compression technologies. In recognition of the growing importance that the Internet plays in the generation and consumption of video content, MPEG intends to develop a new video compression standard in line with the expected usage models of the Internet. The new standard is intended to achieve substantially better compression performance than that offered by MPEG-2 and possibly comparable to that offered by the AVC Baseline Profile. MPEG will issue a call for proposals on video compression technology at the end of its upcoming meeting in March 2011 that is expected to lead to a standard falling under ISO/IEC “Type-1 licensing”, i.e. intended to be “royalty free”."
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No one is expecting management to come in and fight the fire at 2 AM. What is expected of management however is for them to understand what is happening within their organization (and not at the bit's and bytes level) because they are directly responsible for the actual organization. What management should be able to do is to be able to bring in another competent person to fix the fire at 11 AM because you were killed on the highway while you were driving into the office at 2. And that competent person should be able to get a start fixing that problem because management was able to give them the proper "keys" and there is proper documentation for them to get a gist of the layout of the system.
Yes -- you are a sysop, and not management. You are an employee hired to perform what management wants. If management screws up and something happens to the organization, they can be legally held responsible -- think Sorbanes Oxley, if you are following their orders then you are off the hook (one of the reasons why executives are paid the salaries that they are). If you go off and do something on your own without their approval, or try to hide things from them under the guise of "I know what's right for the business", and something happens it will be your butt on the line.
Say that you worked in a finance group responsible for transferring company assets into different external funds that are dictated by upper management, and you thought "hey upper management doesn't understand what they are doing and they don't listen to me, I'm going to go out and transfer some of the companies money into some the funds that I think are doing well, and I know it can make a huge return of investment for the company". How far do you think your arguments would float?
One of the things is that sysops and admins need to stop "hiding" the incompetencies of management by "by going behind management and doing the right thing". If you really believe that the organization is going to fail because of management decisions, document what those decisions are, document how you believe that they are harming the organization and report it to the organization's internal auditing or business controls folks.
The code of ethics for the ACM includes the following http://www.acm.org/about/code-of-ethics
- 1.2 Avoid harm to others - which includes whistle blowing if you believe that superiors are not acting to mitigate a problem that could harm others, but it also means that you've done all the homework as well and taking responsibility of your actions.
- 2.5 Give comprehensive and thorough evaluations of computer systems and their impacts, including analysis of possible risks.
- 2.6 Honor contracts, agreements, and assigned responsibilities.
- 2.8 Access computing and communication resources only when authorized to do so.
All in all I believe that if you really read full list of the ethics of these types of organizations you will find that if you are doing your job well, properly documenting any issues, validating problems, and responsibly reporting them, incompetency will not have a leg to stand on.
A policy should have been in place that defined who the business owner (management) of the resource was (network in this case). It is the responsibility of management to ensure that they define who has a business need for access (and have it documented), and it's the responsibility of the tech grunt to run the system (or network) for the business owner.
The key point is that as a non-manager type person, if management says jump, get it in writing and jump. Management is ultimately responsible for the system and network to the business. If management has made bad choices or decisions, it's their fault and if the request or actions leading up to the failure are documented, that admin can refer to that.
All organizations should at least have a documented policy of who can have access to resources and that the business owner of the resource can be easily determined. The business owner needs to be someone who is legally responsible to the organization (i.e. an executive, or someone high enough in management).
As a system administrator, you should insist on having this documented just to protect yourself. If you suspect that there is some management decisions that could jeopardize the operation of the system, document it, report it to the business owner and let them make the final decision (with documentation).
In the case of Terry Childs, had this been documented, he would have been able to either say that the person who was requesting the passwords did not have a business need (and would be able to back that statement with documentation), -or- if the person did have authority to have access, he could have simply have documented why it was a bad decision, hand the passwords over and walk away from it.
Yes there is a pride element. You've spent years building up a system and making it shine, but unless you are running your own business, you are not the legal owner of that system.
This really isn't anything new. Knuth didn't get it "wrong". He based his analysis of the algorithms assuming a system that had dedicated memory and where each instruction of code ran uninterrupted and in a consistent fashion.
Certain memory access patterns are "bad" under a system that uses virtual memory, especially when the base system is memory constrained. This has been a well known fact for decades. In fact one of the maybe lost arts of programming was ensuring reference locality, not only of data, but also of code. It was a common practice to ensure that often called subroutines or functions where either located in same page of memory as the calling code, or to group all the often called functions into as few pages of memory as possible.
Basically, every address space has what is sometimes called a working set, a set of pages that have been recently referenced. There are three things that can happen with a working set. It can remain the same size, it can grow and it can shrink. If it remains the same, there is no additional load to the operating system. If it shrinks, there is no additional load to the operating system, in fact this can help a memory constrained system. A growing working set however an lead to a thrashing system. Some operating systems will monitor working set sizes and can adjust dispatch priorities and execution classes depending on what the recent working set size history is. An application with a growing working set may very will find itself at the end of the queue way behind applications that have a static working set size.
Take for an example the following very simple program
static string buffer
while not infile.eof() do
Here the working set of this program will be very small. Ignoring the file i/o routines, all the code and data references will be limited to basically a fixed section of memory. From a virtual memory stand point, this is a "well behaved" application.
Now take the following
static string buffer
while not infile.eof() do
bindex = random(0,4095)
infile.readinto(buffer[ bindex ], 256)
outfile.wwritefrom(buffer[ bindex ], 256)
Functionally the same program, however the data reference pattern here is all over the place. The working set will be large, since many of the buffer pages will be referenced. The program never stays long on the same memory location.
Finally take the following example
static string buffer
infile.readinto(buffer, 256* 4096)
// fill the entire buffer
for i = 0 to 4095 do
numbercrunch( buffer[i] )
Here there will be an initially huge working set as the data is read in. However, the working set will shrink to a reasonable size once the numbercrunching phase starts since the data references will all be localized to a small block of memory.