This is well-written, but mostly incorrect, based on some bad assumptions about sandboxing and encryption.
The main differences are as follows: the iOS sandbox is somewhat weaker than the Android sandbox. It restricts fewer things and in the past (not sure if it was fixed these days), key first-party apps such as the web browser were not sandboxed at all, which is how several generations of jailbreak worked.
No, the iOS sandbox is stronger, in that it supports more fine-grained control over access to individual syscalls (based on the BSD-heritage Mandatory Access Control framework), as well as the API-level and filesystem permission-level isolation that Android relies upon. Jailbreaks didn't rely on a lack of sandboxing, for the most part -- they exploited kernel bugs in e.g. the graphics driver. It took until 2011 that "rooting" on Android even approached the complexity of the 2008 iPhone exploits; the neccesary exploits on Android were generally much simpler.
Android was designed from the ground up with the mentality that there should ideally not be an "us vs them" divide - Android treats all apps more or less the same, security-wise, meaning that the browser is just a regular app that runs in a permission-controlled sandbox like any other. This open design is one reason why the permissions UI on Android is more complex than for iOS - apps can do more things and the OS has to communicate that to you.
This is only partially true. Android most certainly does distinguish between "system apps" and 3rd-party apps -- why do you think people have to root their phones to remove crapware?
The main reason that Android's permissions UI is more complex is ... a design issue. The Android team decided that it was better to make all users click through a screen showing a bunch of scary shit, so that they could later blame the user if the app does something strange. "Dialog fatigue" ensures that very few people actually read the whole UI, and the fact that you can't (on a stock system) individually deny any access (while still using the app) means that most people just suck it up and run the app and take their chances.
Most of the rest of what you wrote is wrong, because you base it on the statement that Android's sandbox is stronger.
With regards to other features, like drive encryption, as of the latest releases I believe both operating systems are largely comparable.
Okay, now go back and actually read the Apple paper, starting with page 8. iOS's encryption is fine-grained -- the whole partition is encrypted, and then individual files are further encrypted, depending on the application and use (e.g. you can receive new email and take new photos while the phone is locked; that stuff is then encrypted and written to flash, and cannot be accessed until you unlock the phone with a PIN. Older contents cannot be decrypted until you unlock the phone). Android only got encryption with 3.x and 4.x -- about 2 years after it appeared on iOS -- and it's a shitty implementation (requires a full battery, AC power, and > 1 hour to enable or disable; any interruption will cause data loss; must enter PIN code on boot, which then causes the whole flash to be decrypted in memory until you turn the phone off).