PowerShell did it the other way 'round.
Not really. PowerShell had many short commands since 1.0 in addition to the long versions... it's not that PS "started" one way or the other.
the former grew from a CLI mindset, whereas the latter is easing (back) into CLI from a GUI mindset.
Also not true. There's nothing about the long syntax that grew from a GUI mindset. It was created for consistency and ease of learning.
PowerShell primary commands are formatted Verb-Noun. This is awfully convenient, as a PowerShell user can guess hundreds of commands just by learning a few verbs and a few nouns. I just counted, and to understand half of the 300+ built-in commands on my machine requires only learning 7 verbs.