Ever vigilant, must have been a union shop
Ever vigilant, must have been a union shop
Yes, maintenance, bactericide, algaecide have to be a well oiled routine, especially in the summer time
Yes, it depends on the anti-corrosion additives that are in the water. The proper ones block copper oxidation. Back when I was a young engineer, we had a boiler system that was protected this way, and we took samples evry month and sent them off to the boiler chemical company, who then sent us a list of actions to rebuild the additive prifile.
I expect external cooling towers are much the same, as this search reveals.
Just text to schedule, add the chemicals and all is well.
yes, once a film forms, copper is not effective. new copper or silver ions must enter the water at a steady rate.
Well, the greatest power for getting rid of lazy incompetent people is the inability of management to keep its power to manage, = unions.
Proper antibacterial design, with maintenance, never provides a growth medium for whatever bacteria the winds bring in = no films in the first place. Sadly, human nature and bad maintenance = eventual fail mode = biofilms and mats can form that constantly shed bacteria into the air flow.
yes, ozone and UV = general cellular toxicants.
Hydrogen peroxide safer but more $$
Quite doable, but they must make the cure last the life of the tower, so as the copper erodes, new copper is needed.
In any event, there are many smart ways to make sure there is no continuing infection.
The laziness of people can undermine anything
But, we forgot about lazy, cheap people.
Yes, chlorine or hydrogen peroxidation would solve this, but require some method to maintain the antiseptic aspect.
Copper sheeting might shed enough Cu ions for many years, but would ne replacing as it eroded away.
Newly installed cooling towers deal with this, as this search shows.
So any disinfection must be followed with a permanent antisepsis program, say a little copper in the water?
1 Capacitors hold charge between two plates separated by the electrolyte, and typically excess electrons accumulate on one conducting plate as a cloud. Once you reach a certain voltage, the insulation fails = punch-through. If self healing, the voltage will fall and the arc will stop before the charge is gone. If not, most of the charge will dissipate.
2 Capacitors are the mechanical analog of the spring, more force = more spring stretches, in the same way as you charge a capacitor the voltage increases as the charge increases. There is not voltage plateau of the the electro-chemical difference. Charge Q = 1/2 C * V * V, with Q = coulombs C = farads, and V = voltage. Not the square function, when voltage drops by half, charge is 75% gone, and vice versa. The voltage falls, so there needs to be a regulator for loads that need a constant voltage.
3. Since all surfaces are in parallel, charge and discharge can be very rapid, limited by path resistance and inductance.
4 Batteries change the chemical state of the charge/discharge compound, as a bulk material. This is inherently 25-100 times as much as a capacitor's charge.
Even these capacitors face these limits.
That said, their speed and near infinite life will find them a role, just where they will fit? My fitbit runs for a week on a capacitor and charges very rapidly. Will an iPad or android pone run on that sort of a tiny charge? It is possible that e-ink devices as book reading displays will get to do this, but devices that transmit RF power use more than 1000 times the power of an e-ink reader in static mode, and 100 time in rewrite mode
Labour party - labor the loutic masses.
Well, labor is full of badly educated louts who believe in fairies and homeopathy - what did you expect?
If elected they might set back medicine to the days of the leeches and blood letting blades.
Smart crooks, stupid no-hope male clients bought this crap, and paid $$.in fooling themselves thay had a live fish, sort of an online whore house emulation.
In a bricks and mortar whore house you get your thighs rubbed to get you interested.
Now the lawsuit. They will pay to fight it, stretch it our for years, and may be win and maybe lose, and if Asley loses, the winners will find the money is all gone, and all their legal work went for nothing and the class action suckers will also get nothing, except being very very well known.
A bug in the hand is better than one as yet undetected.