But "God does not throw dice", indeed. God (the universe) follows certain rules that allows us to assign probabilities to all possible outcomes of an event before it happens. But the outcome that actually happens is caused by God (the universe), which is infinitely complex. As we cannot account for all factors that influence the outcome at each given event, we resort to statistics.
Well, this assumes that "beneath" the observed phenomenon that follow probabilistic behavior there is an underlying deterministic nature. But is that a safe assumption? What if the universe really is probabilistic in nature?
However, even though Einstein is right, you can also prove him wrong: If God is the universe and we are part of the universe, we are part of God. As we can create and throw dice, it logically follows that God [i]does[/i] throw dice, in fact, as we are part of it. It's an obvious fact that comes from him being omnipotent.
Well, as a religious person, I believe we have an honest-to-goodness free will that gives us agency apart from either deterministic or probabilistic nature. Ironically, it's because of this belief that it's incorrect to assign responsibility for the actions of free agents to God. In other words, that's not what we mean by "doing" things.
Personally, I think there is a more deterministic explanation for the behavior of the universe. It seems to me there *must* be something that makes more sense to explain particles, waves, forces, QT, etc.; but this is a belief borne of my own desire for order, lack of understanding of QT, and in general leaning toward determinism; so I make no assumptions about what is or isn't, nor what will be discovered in the future.
As a fan of Sci-fi, I hope they discover some new physics that sheds light on why things are the way they are and enables FTL travel, but that's purely wishful thinking on my part.