How about instead of taxing income, you tax money being transferred out of state/country?
Because that would discourage free trade and international investment – it would tend to be even more distorting and inefficient than an income tax. Industries would tend to be local, smaller, and less efficient. And why would people want to invest abroad knowing that their income would be taxed when it comes back to them.
The US already kind of does this. As one of the kludges to handle the resident / domical issue money left abroad is not taxed. This has led to some weird situations which non-US companies avoid.
As to taxes being evil – that is a different kettle of fish. We can debate what type of levels of taxes there should be. My principle point is that the US use of dominical instead of residence / territory is highly inefficient and distortive. If we are going to have a corporate income tax then we should have the best one out there – which means using residence / territory like the rest of the world.
Side note - I have seen studies that corporate taxes under ~15% have a low to no impact on future investments.