You are missing a very important bit about US taxes in this case, one that invalidates your whole concept and semi-anticdote: as the laws work you only pay the higher of the two systems in total.
Maybe – if you are lucky. Depends on the tax code in the foreign country and what kind of tax treaty (if any) they have signed with the US. Generally you only get a tax credit which reduces but does eliminate the double taxation. FYI, corporate taxes and individual taxes are different under most tax jurisdictions. See IRS Pub 901 for more details.
but that is not anything like the "$110 for every $100 in profit" that you talked about.
The tax credit is one of the kludges in the tax code to fix the above issue. If you noticed I did use the past tense – last time this was true was back in the 70s.
But the bigger concept here is that these multinationals rely on the services that the US provides both explictly and implictly.
My argument is not anti-tax, it is about equitable treatment. Assume you have a company incorporated in Europe and has a subsidiary in America – that company would pay taxes on local profits. Now flip the scenario, a American company with a subsidiary in Europe. With a Tax Credit the US company would pay more taxes then the European company. (1-FT)*(1-TUS), where FT is the foreign tax rate and TUS is the American tax rate. Now, there are loopholes, kludges, etc, to get around even that, but still – why encourage complexity in the tax code? Why gimp Americans when they work aboard? I mean, yes, it is the reason why I have a job now – but I am sure if that complexity went away I could find something different to do – something more useful to society.