Like many slash dotters, my body is tired and broken from to many years sitting in front of monitors. My brain is also old and tierd. So I'd like to transplant both please.
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Flemming made the initial observation about the mold, which suggested that it might possibly work. But Florey followed it up, figured out how to extract the key ingredient, test it on mice and later men. "Moldy Mary" and others then refined the mold growing process.
Also there were Sulfa drugs before Penicillin. Wikipedia is your friend.
I wonder how many $billions it cost to develop Penicillin. Half a dozen researchers for a couple of years. Maybe 0.001 billion.
There is something wrong with modern society.
Australia is a second class citizen for content. Movies, Netflix, books, you name it. Publishers withhold content or charge much more for it because they can, just bloody minded tradition. That drives most of the "piracy".
The idea that our government is pushing to help people restrict content that is not available here anyway is appalling. If it is not available under free and equitable terms , it does not deserve copyright. But then the industry whispers in the ears of ministers and we do not have a voice.
Actually it is surprising. Many if not most large government IT projects are appallingly run. Vast amounts of money wasted on useless consultants that end up producing very little if anything at all.
As the NSA's budget grows and grows, I suspect this will happen to them. Lots of MBAs that can only organize their own careers, while the crypto-nerds are pushed into the background.
Reducing recidivism is un-American, because it works against the greatest prison system in the world.
Email is not just the way of the future. My kids use imessage to communicate with their trendy friends with Apple gear. Indeed we needed to buy them an ipad touch just so they could keep up. My wife uses Facebook to communicate. Less fashionable people communicate with Kick, and a few neanderthals even use Skype.
The idea that somebody on GMail or Outlook or even Thunderbird cam communicate with an iPhone is an accident of history. Why would anybody want to support technology that can help others steal the customers that they own? Blogs and RSS are already dead, long live Facebook! Email will follow.
Given an average age in their fifties...
No, the US founding fathers got it right. 14 years from creation of the work, irrespective of the life of the author. Nobody produces content based on expected income in 15 years time.
But this is nothing to do with promoting creative endeavors. It is about protecting libraries held by corporates.
You are assuming that these negotiations are rational.
In practice a bunch of very ordinary bureaucrats have cosy chats behind closed doors. Someone says that they need to stop people stealing copyright. Everybody knows that stealing is bad. So they mindlessly agree and then move on to issues that concern them like agricultural subsidies.
The real issue here is the patentese that patents are written, that use a plurality of terms in order to confuse and obscure. Any normal person would write
"A vehicle which as 3 wheels and a motor." Simple.
+1. The reason that we have terrible spelling is *because* of teachers. They focus on the concept of right vs wrong, and make people petty minded about spelling. That in turn locks in the current horrible system. And requires more teachers to teach it
I doubt if they went to far, wherever that might be. Maybe they went too far...
Certainly biological neurons are much more complex than artificial neural net neurons. The simplest "Integrate and Fire" (IF) model of a biological neuron perform a leaky integration over *time*, and if the voltage ever reaches the trigger value the fire. So the timing of stimulations is critical, whereas most Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) does all its calculations (logically) at the same time. The ANN is both simpler and cleaner to work with. Biological synapses are very complex, but much of that complexity just reflects the wet technology that they are made from.
If you want to understand how the brain works, study biological neurons. If you want to understand how to build an intelligent machine, engineer ANNs.
+1. Our fast changing world is not stable over large timescales.