Yes, one supported configuration for building MAME is using Clang on Linux. It links against distro-provided, GCC-built libstdc++ and Qt4. It definitely works using Clang 3.4 or later on Fedora 20 or later. I've also successfully built applications with Clang against distro-provided, GCC-built libstdc++, xerces-c and Clang on CentOS 6 and later, and Fedora 20 and later.
There are some issues with experimental C++14 mode in Clang that cause it to choke on some of the libstdc++ headers, but these are real known bugs in Clang to be fixed, and C++14 mode is still considered experimental. Also, at present libc++ is still considered experimental and it's recommended that you use GNU libstdc++ when building with Clang on Linux unless you want to report and deal with bugs.