You have mistaken the role of government in healthcare. Government, by mandate of the people, already requires treatment of acutely ill individuals, and nobody is arguing to change that. The question is then how this is paid for (mandated insurance or socialized medicine), what is more cost-effective (in terms of preventative care), and is earlier treatment sufficiently more humane to be preferable in some cases? Also your "small minority of the population" is simply not small. A good 30-50% of Americans have trouble affording health care, partially because people like you prevent the appropriate management of the cost for the already existing basic universal health care. It's not all or nothing as you imply, a typical successful model is to provide basic coverage by mandate or required insurance, and then individuals with means can pay for other perks like shorter wait times or better rooms.
On the dental care side. If society places value on not having a bunch of snaggle-toothed people around, regardless of their ability to pay for orthodontic care, then the government can similarly intervene in that market on behalf of the public to make it more affordable.
Yes, same error, but you missed it. The fundamental problem is that truely secure non-centralized key verification is HARD. If the bank publishes their GPG key, why would you trust it?
Tools for managing one's trust network barely exist. This problem is not isolated to GPG. This problem is so difficult that the more commonly used protocols, HTTPS and S/MIME, solve it effectively by ignoring it and replacing it with a system in which individuals have little or no control over their trust network. Marlinspike has participated in efforts to improve the trust network for HTTPS, but makes the same error, as use of his tools requires one to trust him.
The case in the article seems like an example of this kind of problem with the systemd team. Instead of working with one of the prominent bootloaders to get the UEFI trust chain worked out, they just adopt an infrequently-updated nonstandard (sounds like = buggy) bootloader and run with it. This has the effect of abandoning all the work already put in by the prominent bootloaders to get corner cases working. It's a shortcut so systemd can add a bullet to their feature list, but provides the feature in such a way that it is buggy for many use cases.
I don't object so much to replacing sysv init, but the systemd team appears to have a tendency toward repeatedly reinventing the wheel badly just to get things done faster, and being kinda rude about it, and that makes one a bit uneasy. Though I'm honestly unsure if this is just the sensationalization of a few usual cases or more typical behavior.
The other option is that Microsoft could acknowledge reality - they are not fixing things fast enough to resist targeted attacks. MS's statement about it "not being seen in the wild" demonstrates that they don't understand the current state of exploits. Google's hypothetical attacker is one who will go to lengths to keep an exploit from being used specifically so that MS won't fix it. Also a monthly schedule for updates is a huge liability against such an attacker, as they know their window of opportunity. MS is stuck in the old model that an exploit is not important unless it has been seen in the wild. While that is all well and good for preventing worms from spreading (and therefore protecting MS's image) it is not good enough to protect your company's data from a targeted attack that can buy or discover a zero-day vulnerability. That is reality.
Another way to look at it is that people using MS stuff have chosen interoperability over security. Thus the longer patch testing cycle, and the once-a-month updates. Therefore they shouldn't be surprised when it is demonstrated that... they chose interoperability over security.
So the model for search as well as for gmail was the user trading their privacy for a service. Thus "built on the concept of invading privacy". I think this is a much more even trade on the search side - I'm not averse to reporting to google which of their search results I looked at for a given query before I left the page. That provides better search. But I think one can make an argument that even offering a service in which you are scanning the user's email to market things to them is inherently evil. If you found out your IT staff at a company was just trolling through email for anything you would fire them in a second. Then it just went downhill from there. Though Big Brother Facebook beat Big Brother Google in the race to the bottom.
The fact is that the vendor you purchased your device from (Verizon) actively discourages third-party updates is between you and them. In most cases you cat jailbreak your device and install cyanogenmod, which is pretty similar to what you describe. The status of vendor-supplied updates has been discussed since the inception of Android. Google has mostly made the situation better compared to before Android, since updates for many devices are now controlled by the hardware vendor instead of the network provider. When you purchased your device, you chose to get something from a vendor (Verizon) who is well-known to be hostile to its customers. Don't complain that google didn't save your bacon. You could have bought a Google nexus 7, which is still getting updates, though the latest makes the old ones too slow to use. (In fact they did save your bacon, because you could just root your device to install cyanogenmod. Except that it appears that verizon patched the hole that was being used to root it! Wow that's hostile.)
In the case of Windows, you probably purchased your machine from someone like Dell (not comcast, which would be the closest analog of Verizon in the PC world) and it at least purported to have software from a separate vendor, Microsoft. Verizon, by locking the bootloader, actively prevents you from using system software from another vendor.