I'm not sure what difference this makes to the actual habitability of the planets, but all of these are tidally locked. That is, the same part of the planet is always facing the star (and thus baked) while the same part faces empty space (and thus freezes). A thick atmosphere might transport heat and make things more uniform, but none of these are what one would naively think of as "habitable". In fact, all planets in the "habitable" zone of such small stars are going to be tidally locked. Wikipedia actually has a nice summary of the problem of tidal locking in small stars.
On the other hand, they might have very interesting moons.
There's no real way to "confirm" the number of quarks. Quark number is not a conserved quantum number, so every particle exists as a superposition of different quark numbers. This is particularly problematic if you probe a particle at very high energies; at sufficiently high energies, every hadron (including the humble proton) appears to be a soup of quark-antiquark pairs bubbling out of the vacuum. However, you should be able to make predictions of what the particle's properties will be if it's mostly like a particle that has 4 quarks (really 2 quarks and 2 antiquarks) versus if it's mostly like a particle that is 2 loosely bound mesons (1 quark and 1 antiquark plus 1 quark and 1 antiquark). But there's no definitive way to distinguish between the two.
It's also noteworthy that neither tetraquarks nor mesonic molecules have been previously seen in two experiments. So no matter which it turns out to be mostly like, it's still a discovery.
Anyone interested in the D-wave story should be reading this article where Scott Aaronson explains the meaning of D-Wave's current results.
The takeaway points are:
- D-Wave's machine does demonstrate entanglement and quantum annealing
- There is no speed advantage whatsoever for quantum annealing over classical simulated annealing
- A correctly optimized version of classical annealing is actually faster than D-wave's solution
- D-Wave will only be able to make this machine work as a quantum computer (with the attendant speed gains) by implementing error-correction and other improvements that D-Wave have been loudly deriding for their entire history
Link to Original Source
Link to Original Source
According to TFA, the MgSiO3 dissociates into SiO2 and MgO under Jovian core conditions. They don't calculate what happens to the SiO2, but assume that its solubility is similar to the MgO component. So that would mean that the SiO2 also goes into solution in the Jovian core.
Also of interest (at least to me) but not addressed in this paper is what happens to the nickel-iron component of the core. Perhaps they figure Jovians don't have enough to worry about, since they form so far from the center of the protoplanetary disk?
Linear Algebra, Differential Equations, Advanced Calculus, Partial Differential Equations, Electromagnetism, Waves, Introduction to Astronomy, Special Relativity, Differential Geometry