How did the Vikings settle Greenland?
By longboat, I believe.
Was it because a once frozen ocean stayed ice free so that they could make regular trips?
I think Eric the Red's exile was the primary factor that set the timing.
Tell me about the last 6 years.
In Greenland? It's been losing Ice Sheet Mass, because of increased glacial flow outstripping increased precipitation. Recent findings suggest that the ice sheet is much more vulnerable to ocean warming that previously thought.
When you say something like observed conditions, how much of the earths history do those "observed" conditions cover.
It depends on context. Can you point out which time I said "something like observed conditions" that you are referring to? Sometimes observations of ice go back nearly a million years, by ice core histories. Some Ice observations go back to 1978, the satellite histories.
Do Flora and Fauna records bear out periods warmer and colder than now?
Certainly colder. Warmer is uncertain globally within the past couple or few million years. Central Greenland regionally has probably been warming in the past few hundred years, judging from Ice cores.
Is global warming a theory due to the fact that it has facets that fly against observations?
No. Global warming is what happens when you warm the globe. It's not a theory. The relevant theories are probably optics and thermodynamics. There are no observations that suggest the globe isn't currently warming. Energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere measurements, and sea level measurements are probably the most irrefutable signs that the globe is warming, as a globe. But surface temperature measurements are also strongly indicative.