If you extend that to "... underappreciated by modern audiences", I can think of a few.
There's Keith Laumer, who was huge in his day and then largely forgotten until Eric Flint and David Weber (and friends) re-invigorated his work, particularly the "Bolo" series.
James H. Schmitz wrote some cracking stuff, which has also recently been rediscovered by the Tor crowd.
James Tiptree Jr. (aka Alice Sheldon) is better known, but still fairly obscure to the modern SF reader.
Christopher Priest has also had recently renewed interest, almost entirely due to the film version of The Prestige, but he wrote a bunch of other goddamn weird, dark, depressing books.
Lloyd Biggle Jr. wrote some marvellous gently humorous stuff - his Cultural Survey novels are particularly good.
Clifford D. Simak is another acknowledged master of the genre who seems to get short shrift in modern SF collections.
But my own pick for Most Underappreciated would be Janet Kagan, who wrote a heap of short fiction, two utterly superb standalone works, and a Star Trek TOS novel, and then tragically died in 2008. I personally think she's as good as Lois McMaster Bujold, and had she lived to keep writing, she might be better known.