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Submission + - What makes a theory a scientific one?

StartsWithABang writes: You don’t need to be right to be a scientist, and your theory doesn’t need to be correct to be a scientific theory. While there is a big difference between the way we colloquially use the word theory (to mean “idea”) and the way scientists use it (to mean “testable idea”), there are actually three different stages that scientific ideas progress through. One is to simply be an idea, which we normally think of as a hypothesis in the scientific process. The second one, which is more advanced, is to become a scientific framework, where the details and predictions are teased out, with the hopes that it goes from being testable in principle to being testable in practice, through observations, experiments and measurements. The highest level, though, is when a scientific theory becomes validated and accepted. Still, plenty of bad, incorrect ideas are scientific, too; we just need to have the courage to call them what they are: demonstrably wrong.

Submission + - The physics of the perfect chocolate for Valentine's Day

StartsWithABang writes: One of the most iconic associations with Valentine’s Day is chocolate. And not just any chocolate, mind you, but good-quality chocolate, with a creamy, silky-smooth texture, a firm but shiny structure, and an even, rich consistency and taste throughout. Perhaps surprisingly, there’s a rich and complex science behind it. Chocolate can come in six different crystalline structures, and by properly controlling the temperature, you can ensure that yours comes out absolutely perfect, thanks to a little physics.

Submission + - What it will mean if LIGO detects gravitational waves

StartsWithABang writes: When we look out into the Universe, we normally gain information about it by gathering light of various wavelengths. However, there are other possibilities for astronomy, including by looking for the neutrinos emitted by astrophysical sources — first detected in the supernova explosion of 1987 — and in the gravitational waves emitted by accelerating masses. These ripples in the fabric of space were theorized back in the early days of Einstein’s General Relativity, and experiments to detect them have been ongoing since the 1960s. However, in September of 2015, Advanced LIGO came online, and it was the first gravitational wave observatory that was expected to detect a real gravitational wave signal. The press conference on Thursday is where the collaboration will make their official announcement, and in the meantime, here’s an explainer of what gravitational waves are, what Advanced LIGO can teach us, and how.

Submission + - Why telescopes have holes in the middle

StartsWithABang writes: When you look at the largest, most powerful optical telescopes in the world, they all have something in common: they all have holes in their central, primary mirrors. This is for a few reasons, including that they’re all reflectors, they all need to focus light somewhere in front of the mirror, and they all need to send that light somewhere to be recorded and analyzed. You can, in principle, focus the light somewhere off-axis, and many amateur telescopes do, but for the professionals, you lose more light that way than you would by simply having a hole in the center. In order to conserve the most light and maximize the image quality with the fewest artifacts, leaving a hole in the mirror is by far the best way to go.

Submission + - Are we due for the next big extinction event?

StartsWithABang writes: Looking at the history of life on Earth, the fossil record shows something incontrovertible: in order for new forms of life to rise to dominance, it requires something to knock the prior forms from dominating their ecological niche. This can come about in any number of ways, but the most striking changes come from catastrophic events that wipe a large percentage of species off the Earth at once: a mass extinction event. While the asteroid strike that wiped out the dinosaurs was perhaps the most famous one, there is bountiful evidence that there were many others over the past 500 million years, with perhaps some periodicity to these events. Recently, reports have emerged that our Sun’s passage through the galactic plane, with periods of 26-30 million years, might correlate with these events. Yet a look at the fossil record shows extinction events do not have the required periodicity to account for that, nor do Oort cloud strikes account for the majority of such events on Earth.

Submission + - Giant Magellan Telescope set to revolutionize ground-based astronomy

StartsWithABang writes: If you want to see farther, deeper and at higher resolution than ever before into the Universe, you need four things: the largest aperture possible, the best-quality optical systems and cameras/CCDs, the least interference from the atmosphere, and the analytical techniques and power to make the most of every photon. While the last three have improved tremendously over the past 25 years, telescope size hasn’t increased at all. That’s all about to change over the next decade, as three telescopes — the Giant Magellan Telescope, the Thirty Meter Telescope and the European Extremely Large Telescope — are set to take us from 8-10 meter class astronomy to 25-40 meter class. While the latter two are fighting over funding, construction rights and other political concerns, the Giant Magellan Telescope is already under construction, and is poised to be the first in line to begin the future of ground-based astronomy.

Submission + - Scientists discover supersonic stars in sound-less space

StartsWithABang writes: Travel fast enough through the air, and you’ll exceed the speed of sound. The compressed air in front of you builds up, denser and denser, creating a shock wherever you’ve exceeded the sound barrier. In interstellar space, stars that move fast enough do the exact same thing.
There doesn’t need to be sound in space for runaway stars to compress gas, heating it and causing it to radiate. Our infrared space telescopes, like NASA’s Spitzer and WISE, are ideal for identifying and imaging these stellar bow shocks. Hundreds have been identified so far, with thousands to millions likely in every galaxy overall.

Submission + - Physicists mean five different things when they say "Multiverse"

StartsWithABang writes: When you think about the Multiverse, everyone thinks about the Universe beyond what’s accessible to us. But whether you think about more Universe like our own, multiple Universe that are disconnected from ours, an infinite number of parallel Universes, where possibly multiple copies of identical “yous” are entangled, or where the laws of physics are different from our own depends on what type of Multiverse you’re talking about. As it turns out, our standard picture of inflation, the Big Bang and quantum physics leads to some of these being quite likely, with others being grossly disfavored. Before you follow the speculations of a great many others down whatever rabbit-hole of thought they’d lead you, come learn about what’s known, what’s expected and what’s highly speculative (and unobservable) based on our current knowledge.

Submission + - Monstrous Cosmic Gas Cloud Set To Ignite The Milky Way

StartsWithABang writes: Give a planet a kick, and it goes into a more distant orbit around our star. Give it a hard enough kick, and it will reach escape velocity, leaving our Solar System forever. But if you gave it an almost hard enough kick, it would travel extremely far from the Sun, but it would eventually boomerang back towards the inner Solar System, with potentially disastrous, disruptive consequences. This applies to any system (not just the Solar System), including our own galaxy. In the Milky Way’s outskirts, there are high-velocity gas clouds, including one — the Smith Cloud — that’s moving towards us at a breakneck pace. Thanks to data from the Hubble Space Telescope, Andrew Fox and his team have just uncovered that this cloud came from our Milky Way, was almost ejected into intergalactic space, but is now on its way back, where in 30 million years it will collide with our galactic disk. The 11,000 light year-long cloud is expected to produce over 2 million new stars when it does.

Submission + - Space becomes transparent thanks to the fires of young stars 1

StartsWithABang writes: The distant nebulae might appear to illuminate the night sky, but this neutral gas is mostly only good for reflecting or absorbing starlight, which obscures the view of all the stars and galaxies lying in the background. But this light-blocking effect is only temporary, as over time, this neutral gas will give way to transparency. All it takes is the energy of the hot, blue stars forming inside, whose ultraviolet radiation will eventually ionize all of the material within it. The last gasps of the neutral gas will appear as Evaporating Gas Globules (EGGs), and when they’re all completely ionized, the starlight from everything beyond will be free to stream towards our eyes unimpeded.

Submission + - Could the Universe itself be a living entity?

StartsWithABang writes: The analogies between small-scale, living things and large-scale, cosmic entities are abundant: between a neuron and the Universe’s large-scale structure; between an atom and a solar system; between the stars in a galaxy and the atoms in a cell; between the cells in a living being and the galaxies in the Universe. It makes you wonder if, on a cosmic scale, some portion (or the whole) of the Universe could actually be alive and self-aware?
While we don’t yet know how to test for that, what we can calculate is the amount of information that a self-aware being does exchange, and compare that to the amount of information that could conceivably be mutually exchanged by cosmic entities on various scales. The conclusion is that while the entire Universe can’t do it, on timescales much longer than the present age of the Universe, individual bound galaxies, groups and clusters perhaps could.

Submission + - The closest newborn stars are almost 1,000 closer than the Orion Nebula

StartsWithABang writes: If you ask the average person where you can find new stars in our galaxy, they might (correctly) identify the Orion Nebula, a hotbed of star formation where thousands of new stars are presently being born. But at ~1,500 light years away, it’s not the closest place where new stars are forming, not by a long shot. Instead, the southern hemisphere holds a number of smaller “dark nebulae,” which are actually gas clouds. Many of them are in the process of forming brilliant new stars, including Lupus 3, which is giving birth to stars ranging from much less than the mass of our Sun all the way up to many times it mass and brightness.

Submission + - Follow-up observations still admit alien megastructures around KIC 8462852

StartsWithABang writes: Last year, Penn State astronomer Jason Wright made headlines by claiming that one of the stars being observed by NASA’s Kepler mission might contain alien megastructures around it. The large dips in its light curve didn’t make sense in the context of planets, and the star KIC 8462852 became the target of a great many follow-ups. A binary companion was found, along with no signs of excess infrared emission or artificial radio signatures. However, archival data recently found that the star dimmed by about 20% over the past century. While the alien megastructures possibility cannot be ruled out, a great many other astrophysical possibilities still survive.

Submission + - Some things are fundamentally unknowable about the Universe

StartsWithABang writes: As we peel back the layers of information deeper and deeper into the Universe’s history, we uncover progressively more knowledge about how everything we know today came to be. The discovery of distant galaxies and their redshifts led to expanding Universe, which led to the Big Bang and the discovery of very early phases like the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. But before that, there was a period of cosmic inflation that left its mark on the Universe. What came before inflation, then? Did it always exist? Did it have a beginning? Or did it mark the rebirth of a cosmic cycle? Maddeningly, this information may forever be inaccessible to us, as the nature of inflation wipes all this information clean from our visible Universe.

Submission + - How fast do gravitational waves travel? 1

StartsWithABang writes: When Einstein’s theory was first proposed as an alternative to Newtonian gravity, there were a number of subtle but important theoretical differences noted between the two. Einstein’s theory predicted gravitational redshift, time delays, bending of light and more. But what was perhaps most remarkable is that unlike Newton’s gravity, Einstein’s general relativity predicted an entirely new phenomenon: gravitational radiation. Much like how charged particles moving in a magnetic field accelerate and emit radiation in the form of photons, masses moving in a gravitational field accelerate and emit radiation in the form of gravitational waves, or ripples in the fabric of space itself. Even though these waves move at c, the speed of light in a vacuum, the expanding Universe carries them even farther, as these ripples ride atop the fabric of our expanding spacetime.

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