One of those "enumerated protections" is the due process clause of the 14th Amendment. Which says that, in fact, State governments can't use majority rule to discriminate against minorities, either.
Had to reply to this. I agree with your assessment that Heinlein's novels are not the greatest (Although I thought "Time Enough for Love" had some interesting ideas), and I was a hardcore Heinlein fanboi for a while. But his short stories are amazing. "By His Bootstraps" is one of the coolest time travel stories ever. "The Man Who Sold the Moon" is brilliant. And "Life-line" and "Let There Be Light," his first two published stories, are really good descriptions of the conflict between transformative technologies and entrenched interests, which have arguably more relevance today than when they were first written (c.f. the automobile or music industries). Because the OP asked for ideas of short stories as well as novels, and you can't include novels by everyone, by all means, feature one or two of Heinlein's short stories. Because any sci-fi/fantasy class that "avoid[s] Heinlein" is like a Classical Music class that omits Beethoven.
Nakanai_de writes "In Dardenne Prairie, Missouri, a 13-year old girl committed suicide after her neighbors impersonated a boy on MySpace, feigned romantic interest in her, and then began making abusive comments. While kids are bullied on MySpace every day, in this case, the bullies were adults. Furthermore, even though their behavior led to the suicide of the teen, no charges are being filed: "We did not have a charge to fit it," McGuire [the Sheriff's Dept. spokesman] says. "I don't know that anybody can sit down and say, 'This is why this young girl took her life.'" The Associated Press has more sordid details."