In most democracies there are usually two parties that most people vote for (Both of which are different shades of shit).
Did you check this one out at all or just assume it to be true? America's pretty much the only one like this that I'm aware of.
I don't know how it's done formally, but it seems the only reasonable way for the solar system is to define it as the sun, or the centre of the sun. Seeing as it's the SOLar system
For the galaxy it's probably better to define it as a region. Sagittarius A is the supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy with a few million solar masses. Good a place as any to stick the 'centre' pin I reckon.
It's amazing that stuff like this and flat earth beliefs are still out there. These nutters are immune to evidence.
None of that is unique to fiat currency. Gold just isn't that useful.
Gold may not be incredibly useful, but it is (a) rare and (b) unreactive and (c) pretty and malleable. So it definitely has intrinsic properties that make it valuable. Probably scarcity above all though.
They work on the same principle
Homeopathy doesn't work, it's just water. Vaccines work (what's your explanation for where smallpox went to?) and are not just water.
Apart from that you're bang on the money.