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Adjustment of status is the process by which an eligible individual already in the United States can get permanent resident status (a green card) without having to return to their home country to complete visa processing.
Employment based categories most often require the intending U.S. employer to file a Form I-140, Petition for Alien Worker, for you.
After that, you apparently file form I-485 for yourself.
I think employers helping their existing H1-B's to obtain permanent resident status would show that they're not interested in the extra negotiating power the employee's non-resident status gives the employer. OTOH if they're not willing to help their current H1-B employees obtain permanent resident status, but they still petition for more H1-B's, this shows legislators clearly that they consider lack of residence as desirable in an employee.
After such a change, there would no longer be "safe states" or "write-off states" candidates would have to be doing the heavy campaigning everywhere for every electoral vote because they could no longer help themselves to the votes of any state's outnumbered voters. Moreover, third party candidates could get an elector just by getting enough votes for one elector, which would be a much lower bar than winning an entire state.
More importantly, if voters in a state are able to provide an elector for their candidate of choice, even though the majority of voters in that state have a different opinion, then these voters will feel more like the act of voting actually provides them with benefit.