Likewise, the nearest mountain could well be a few hundes miles away. Of course any set of landmarks will do but coming from a completely flat area I'm familiar with towns where no landmarks are visible from most places in town.
In such situations I just take out my smartphone and do a map search for whatever is on the road signs. Even just knowing how the current road is laid out can help you get your bearings and if that's not enough you can match the names of crossing roads with what you see on the map to get your exact location. Yes, that's using Google Maps as a road map with a search function. It works fairly well for that and doesn't bulk up your pockets when you're on foot.