Brodmann already counted the CPUs of the brain. They are called Brodmann areas. BA17, for example, is primary visual cortex. BA45 is Broca's area (speech). There are about 50. They are defined by differences in the micro-cellular architecture of the area. Most areas of cortex look roughly the same, but there are many differences, for example the input layers of primary sensory areas are larger than in other areas. Some areas have large output layers, or more inhibitory cells, etc.
The brain does have many distinct areas, asynchronously operating, highly connected with both local and long distance connections, and the areas themselves are composed of a rich mosaic of different cell types that continuously self-regulate, process information, and adapt.