You want to make something out of (name any substance)? There are only a few special cases where any government approval is required, and patents are NEVER required.
If you want any capital to operate with, you need security in the profitability of producing it. Patents are this security, and so are always necessary unless you want to throw money away. So no, you don't want to leave out steps that will quickly leave your company bankrupt. And all business sectors have codes, standards, and regulations by which you need to abide.
Well for the first few hundred million years there's zero metal. Anything* other than hydrogen and helium are only made during a sun exploding.
Correction: anything elements above Iron are only made during a supernova.