Probably not - at least in this case. They are looking at a specific form of cancer, lymphoma. Lymphomas do span the gamut from being indolent to extremely aggressive, hence the need for accurate diagnosis, but we have a fairly good idea of what the natural history of each subtype is. This system is not designed to mow through a bunch of clinical data and pop out a 'cancer' diagnosis.
That said, TFA is incredibly poorly written. It is anything but clear WHAT information they are using (pathology slides? DNA samples? Chart notes?) and it is most certainly not AI.
While over diagnosing pre clinical cancers is a concern, this particular methodology won't make that worse. In fact, if it actually does work, it might decrease what are essentially false positive diagnoses by linking the testing component to the natural history of the disease (eg, 'this particular cancer is mostly harmless, don't worry about it much').