No, it's your hardware provider that is your problem, not Google.
Do you update your Windows/Linux/OSX PC/laptop from the OS vendor or the company that sold you the hardware? It's almost always the OS vendor. A PC/laptop is very similar to a smartphone except the latter is smaller. Google's model of pushing updates through the hardware vendor utterly stupid and adds an extra unnecessary middleman to the process.
Not the same issue. PCs are standard, using largely off the shelf parts, a discoverable PCI based bus architecture to attach peripherals to the CPU, and the OS component is bought in.
In the case of a phone, the hardware is proprietry, using device trees to describe where peripherals are mapped (may vary between vendors) and the OS image itself usually customized by the network operator to push their crapware and "value add" tools.
Contact your hardware provider and bitch to them, not Google.
Why can't google's patch fix the issue? Is there a different kernel for each android phone so that different patches are needed for each phone?
Exactly. Each hardware vendor provides it's own kernel, and probably own version of drivers such as GPU and radio devices. The way Android is put onto phones is via a single monolithic read-only image, so it's all or nothing when updating the base Android image.
Now, if the hardware vendors make after market ROMs easier to install (or just possible to install without hacking the phone) then it might not even be an issue. My HTC One S (stock Android == 4.1) is happily running CM12 (Lollipop based), and it rocks. But again, this is outside Google's control, and I had to get unlock codes from HTC to do so (but at least they do so without requiring jail-breaking hacks.)